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Integration of the human rights of women and the gender perspective

E/CN.4/2002/83/Add.1 Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy,submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 2000/49

 

Consejo Económico
y Social
Distr.
GENERAL
E/CN.4/2002/83/Add.1
28 de enero de 2002
ESPAÑOL
Original: ESPAÑOL/FRANCÉS/
INGLÉS
COMISIÓN DE DERECHOS HUMANOS
58º período de sesiones
Tema 12 a) del programa provisional
INTEGRACIÓN DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS DE LA MUJER Y LA
PERSPECTIVA DE GÉNERO: LA VIOLENCIA CONTRA LA MUJER
Informe de la Relatora Especial sobre la violencia contra la mujer, sus causas
y consecuencias, Sra. Radhika Coomaraswamy, presentado de conformidad
con la resolución 2001/49 de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos
Adición
Comunicaciones enviadas a los gobiernos y recibidas de éstos*
* El resumen de este informe y el formulario confidencial (véase el apéndice) se distribuyen en
todos los idiomas oficiales. El informe figura anexo al resumen y se distribuye en los idiomas en
los que se presentó solamente.
GE.02-10447 (S) 110202 200202
NACIONES E
UNIDAS
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ÍNDICE
Párrafos Página
Resumen ............................................................................................................. 4
Annex: INFORMATION REVIEWED BY THE SPECIAL
RAPPORTEUR WITH RESPECT TO VARIOUS
COUNTRIES ......................................................................... 1 - 151 5
Australia ...................................................................................... 1 5
Bahrain ........................................................................................ 2 5
Bangladesh .................................................................................. 3 - 6 6
Canada ........................................................................................ 7 6
China ........................................................................................... 8 - 11 7
Colombia ..................................................................................... 12 - 15 7
Democratic Republic of the Congo .............................................. 16 8
Egypt ........................................................................................... 17 - 20 9
Ethiopia ....................................................................................... 21 - 22 10
Guinea ......................................................................................... 23 - 26 11
India ............................................................................................ 27 - 39 12
Indonesia ..................................................................................... 40 - 47 15
Iran (Islamic Republic of) ............................................................ 48 - 51 16
Israel ........................................................................................... 52 - 53 17
Kenya .......................................................................................... 54 17
Lebanon ...................................................................................... 55 - 71 18
Liberia ......................................................................................... 72 22
México ........................................................................................ 73 - 74 22
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ÍNDICE (continuación)
Párrafos Página
Myanmar ..................................................................................... 75 - 91 23
Nigeria ........................................................................................ 92 - 93 25
Philippines ................................................................................... 94 - 109 26
Qatar ........................................................................................... 110 - 112 29
Republic of Moldova ................................................................... 113 - 114 30
Russian Federation ...................................................................... 115 - 116 30
Sri Lanka ..................................................................................... 117 - 139 31
Turkey ......................................................................................... 140 - 148 35
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ............... 149 37
Uzbekistan ................................................................................... 150 - 151 38
Apéndice: Formulario confidencial de denuncia de actos de violencia
contra la mujer ........................................................................................... 39
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Resumen
En su 57º período de sesiones, la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, en su
resolución 2001/49, pidió a todos los gobiernos que prestaran su colaboración y asistencia a la
Relatora Especial en el desempeño de las tareas y funciones que se le habían encomendado, que
le proporcionaran toda la información solicitada y que respondieran a las comunicaciones y
visitas de la Relatora Especial. Por otra parte, la Comisión celebró los esfuerzos realizados por
la Relatora Especial para solicitar información a los gobiernos sobre casos específicos de
presunta violencia, a fin de determinar e investigar situaciones concretas de violencia contra la
mujer, sus causas y consecuencias, en particular, cuando procediera, mediante llamamientos y
comunicaciones urgentes con otros relatores especiales.
La Relatora Especial ha preparado un formulario estándar para la presentación de
información que puede utilizarse para documentar supuestos casos de violencia contra la mujer
(véase el apéndice). A este respecto, cabe señalar que, con arreglo a su mandato, la Relatora
Especial sólo puede estudiar casos de violencia contra la mujer específicamente motivados por
su sexo, es decir actos de violencia o amenazas de tales actos contra la mujer por su pertenencia
al sexo femenino. La definición de violencia basada en la pertenencia al sexo femenino que usa
la Relatora Especial se ha tomado de la Declaración sobre la eliminación de la violencia contra la
mujer, aprobada por la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas en su resolución 48/104
de 20 de diciembre de 1993.
La Relatora Especial desea comunicar a la Comisión que durante el período que se
examina envió comunicaciones a los Gobiernos de Bangladesh, China, Colombia, Egipto,
Etiopía, la Federación de Rusia, Filipinas, Guinea, la India, Indonesia, el Irán (República
Islámica del), Israel, Kenya, el Líbano, Liberia, México, Myanmar, Nigeria, la República
Democrática del Congo, la República de Moldova, Sri Lanka, Turquía y Uzbekistán. Además,
los Gobiernos de la Federación de Rusia, el Irán, el Líbano, México, Sri Lanka y Turquía
enviaron a la Relatora Especial respuestas sobre casos presentados durante el año que se
examina, y los Gobiernos de Australia, Bahrein, el Canadá, China, los Emiratos Árabes Unidos,
Qatar, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte y Sri Lanka lo hicieron respecto de
casos presentados en años anteriores.
En el informe se presentan, país por país, resúmenes de las denuncias generales y
particulares, así como llamamientos urgentes transmitidos a los gobiernos, y las respuestas de
éstos a esos llamamientos. Cuando corresponde, se incluyen también las observaciones de la
Relatora Especial.
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Annex
INFORMATION REVIEWED BY THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR
WITH RESPECT TO VARIOUS COUNTRIES
Australia
Follow-up to previously transmitted communications
1. By letter dated 7 March 2001 the Government responded to the Special Rapporteur’s
communication dated 4 February 1999 concerning the case of Ms. E (E/CN.4/2000/68/Add.1,
paras. 8-18). The Government indicated that on 11 February 1999, the Refugee Review
Tribunal (RRT) had affirmed the decision of the delegate of the Minister for Immigration and
Multicultural Affairs not to grant Ms. E a protection visa as the RRT was not satisfied that Ms. E
was a refugee. However, on 3 July 2000, following health and character checks, the Minister
exercised his powers under section 417 of the Migration Act 1958 (Cth) and granted Ms. E a
subclass 820 spouse (temporary) visa. Under section 417 the Minister may substitute for a
decision of the RRT a decision that is more favourable to the applicant, if he thinks it is in the
public interest to do so. Although the subclass 820 visa granted to Ms. E is a temporary visa, she
may now apply for a subclass 801 spouse (permanent) visa. She will be eligible for grant of the
permanent visa after two years if she remains in a genuine and continuing relationship with her
Australian husband and does not engage in conduct that would preclude the grant of the visa.
Ms. E is therefore not at risk of return to the Ukraine in the foreseeable future.
Bahrain
Follow-up to previously transmitted communications
2. By letter dated 22 January 2001 the Government responded to a communication sent
on 21 December 2000 (E/CN.4/2001/73/Add.1 paras. 3-5) concerning the case of
Yeshiworq Desta Zewdu. It stated that on 28 November 2000 the court had convicted
Ms. Zewdie and sentenced her to death. Her lawyer lodged an appeal in the High Court of
Appeal on 25 December 2000, and a hearing date was awaited. Should that appeal be
unsuccessful the case would be sent for automatic review by the Cassation Court, which has
powers to look into the case by way of full appeal, or by rehearing of either the substantive case
or of issues of the procedure, law or evidence. Should the Cassation Court uphold the conviction
and sentence, the case would be referred to his Highness the Amir, without whose consent no
death sentence can, under the Constitution and applicable laws be carried out. The Government
assured the Special Rapporteur that Ms. Zewdie was fully represented by an independent defence
lawyer and that full and complete judicial safeguards were in place to prevent any form of
injustice. It stated that Ms. Zewdie’s case continued to follow the due process of law in the
regular way.
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Bangladesh
3. By letter dated 30 September 2001 sent jointly with the Special Rapporteur on torture, the
Special Rapporteur advised the Government that she had received information on the following
individual cases.
4. Chaniu Marma, a 13-year-old girl from Dajjya Para village in Khagrachari district, is
reported to have been repeatedly raped by a group of so-called Bangladeshi Muslim
infiltrators on 18 March 2000 near Dajjya Para Road. She allegedly lost consciousness.
On 23 March 2000, she was reportedly examined at Khagrachari hospital and lodged a case
against the rapists at the Manikchari police station under the Children and Women Persecution
Act. No investigation or arrest has reportedly been carried out.
5. Momta Khatun Rekha, a 17-year-old girl from Singuira village in Gatail area of Tangail
district, was reportedly raped by a police constable from Bhuapur police station on 14 September
1999 in a house adjacent to Bhuapur Thana hospital. The constable took her to a nearby house,
where she was tied to a bed and had a handkerchief pushed into her mouth. The family is said to
have filed a complaint on 15 September 1999 against the constable and his accomplice at
Bhuapur police station on the allegation of kidnapping and raping Momta Khatun. The constable
was reportedly suspended and taken into custody. Months later, Momta Khatun Rekha withdrew
the case reportedly under severe pressure from the police.
6. Rowshan Ara Begum, an elected member of the Union Parishad (local council), was
allegedly raped in her home in the Kishorgonj district of Dhaka by two men, accompanied by
three accomplices, on 1 May 1999. She was beaten in front of her 13-year-old daughter, Shara,
who was then locked out of the house while two of the men raped her mother. The five accused
were said to have been subsequently arrested, but three (charged with being accomplices) were
released on bail and reportedly threatened her, her children and her lawyers. The police are said
to have taken action to assure their safety.
Canada
Follow-up to previously transmitted communications
7. By letter dated 21 June 2001 the Government responded to the communication submitted
jointly with the Special Rapporteurs on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, and on
the human rights of migrants on 9 August 2000 (E/CN.4/2001/73/Add.1, paras. 11-13) regarding
the case of Ms. Anam Iqra. The Government indicated that Canada recognized Ms. Iqra as a
“Convention refugee” on 14 February 2001. She subsequently filed an application for
permanent residence on 27 February 2001. As a refugee claimant she is entitled to work in
Canada. If granted permanent residence in Canada, Ms. Iqra would have virtually the same
rights and obligations as a Canadian citizen. After three years of permanent residence in Canada,
she could apply for citizenship.
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China
8. By letter dated 30 September 2001 sent jointly with the Special Rapporteur on torture, the
Special Rapporteur advised the Government that she had received information on the following
individual cases.
9. Between March 1997 and June 1998, the director and deputy director of Qinjia Township
police station, Xinhua County, Hunan Province had illegally detained 42 young women who
worked in other provinces, handcuffing, kicking, beating, humiliating and threatening them in
order to extract confessions that they had engaged in prostitution. In September 1999, they were
reportedly sentenced to one year and to six months in prison respectively for detaining the
women. Both sentences were allegedly suspended for one year.
10. On 17 May 1999, the head of the Public Security Bureau Communication Department of
Xinmi City, Henan Province, a police colleague and a security guard reportedly apprehended a
young woman, detained her at their office, demanded that she admit to prostitution, beat her with
police batons, gave her electric shocks to her breasts and thigh, sexually assaulted her and kicked
her. They reportedly forced her to sign a guarantee, threatening to send her to a labour camp.
They reportedly told her they had been lenient to her, that with women from other towns, they
would apply electric shocks to their vaginas until they confessed.
Follow-up to previously transmitted communications
11. By letter dated 15 January 2001, the Government of the People’s Republic of China
responded to the Special Rapporteur’s communication dated 13 March 2000 concerning the case
of Rebiya Kedeer. The Government indicated that Rebiya Kadeer was serving her sentence at
the Xinjiang Autonomous Region No. 1 prison. She was convicted in accordance with
articles 111 and 56.1 of the Penal Code for supplying State intelligence to parties abroad; the
court sentenced her to eight years’ imprisonment and stripped her of her political rights for two
years. The Government stated that the verdict had nothing to do with freedom of speech or with
her activities relating to women’s issues as a member of a governmental delegation. The
Government denied allegations that she was being badly treated and that her health had
deteriorated as a result.
Colombia
12. El 11 de junio de 2001, la Relatora Especial envió un llamamiento urgente conjuntamente
con el Relator Especial sobre ejecuciones extrajudiciales, sumarias o arbitrarias y el
Representante Especial del Secretario General sobre la situación de los defensores de los
derechos humanos a favor de Dany Rada Jiménez, de 22 años, y otros activistas de la
Organización Femenina Popular (OFP). Según las informaciones recibidas, el 18 de mayo
de 2001, paramilitares habrían informado a Dany Rada que era objetivo militar y, desde
entonces, habría recibido reiteradas amenazas de muerte. Desde hace unas semanas estaría bajo
constante vigilancia y hombres desconocidos la habrían seguido en distintas ocasiones por la
calle. Ésta habría denunciado los hechos a la policía. El 3 de junio de 2001, un familiar suyo
habría sido amenazado por un paramilitar que le habría dicho que Dany Rada se metía en sus
problemas y que ya le habrían advertido que no denunciara. El paramilitar también habría
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afirmado que un policía de Puerto Wilches le había entregado una copia de la denuncia que ésta
habría interpuesto. Los paramilitares habrían amenazado igualmente a varios miembros de la
organización de Puerto Wilches, departamento de Santander, con matar a activistas de la OFP,
y habrían advertido a los vecinos de Puerto Wilches que la organización de mujeres estaba
amenazada, asegurando que: "Es posible que colocaremos una bomba... La OFP se acaba
porque se acaba".
13. El 13 de febrero de 2001, la Relatora Especial envió un llamamiento urgente
conjuntamente con el Relator Especial sobre ejecuciones extrajudiciales, sumarias o arbitrarias
y el Representante Especial del Secretario General sobre la situación de los defensores de los
derechos humanos a favor de la Organización Femenina Popular (OFP). Según las
informaciones recibidas, en la mañana del 27 de enero de 2001, dos hombres que se habrían
identificado como miembros del grupo paramilitar Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC)
habrían llegado al Centro "Casa de la Mujer" dirigido por la Organización Femenina Popular
(OFP) en el distrito de Prado-Campestre de Barrancabermeja, departamento de Santander.
Según la fuente, los dos hombres habrían anunciado su intención de ocupar el Centro y habrían
exigido a los activistas que les dieran las llaves del mismo. Uno de los hombres habría vuelto al
lugar el mismo día, amenazando a la defensora de los derechos humanos, Jackelin Rojas, y
requisando su teléfono celular. Se informa que los paramilitares habrían amenazado con tomar el
Centro por la fuerza "tumbando la puerta abajo y pasando por encima de quien fuera". Según la
fuente, el hombre fue arrestado por la policía, pero se teme que otros miembros de las
Autodefensas pudiesen llevar a cabo su amenaza de tomar a la fuerza el Centro.
14. Además, se informa de la situación de un observador internacional de la organización no
gubernamental "Peace Brigades International (PBI)", que colabora con otros grupos de
defensores de los derechos humanos en Colombia, en particular la Organización Femenina
Popular. La información indica que a primera hora de la mañana del 8 de febrero de 2001, dos
hombres armados, que se habrían identificado como miembros de las AUC, habrían llegado a un
centro de mujeres dirigido por la OFP. Según la fuente, los dos hombres se aproximaron a un
observador internacional de Peace Brigades International y le habrían ordenado que les entregara
sus documentos así como su teléfono celular. Al negarse, uno de los paramilitares le habría
amenazado con una pistola. Tras tomar los documentos y el teléfono celular, los dos hombres
habrían abandonado el centro amenazando con declarar a la organización PBI objetivo militar.
15. Los Relatores Especiales expresaron su preocupación en cuanto a la posible suspensión por
la fuerza del trabajo de los defensores de los derechos humanos en Barrancabermeja como
resultado de la intimidación a la cual estarían siendo sometidos. Se alega que algunos defensores
de los derechos humanos habrían salido de Barrancabermeja y que aquellos que todavía
permanecen allí estarían siendo perseguidos, hostigados y amenazados.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
16. Le 27 août 2001, la Rapporteuse spéciale a envoyé un appel urgent conjointement avec les
Rapporteurs spéciaux sur la situation des droits de l’homme en République démocratique du
Congo et sur la torture et le Président-Rapporteur du Groupe de travail sur la détention arbitraire
en relation à des incidents qui se seraient déroulés le mercredi 15 août 2001, au marché central
de Kinshasa. Suite au décès lors de son arrestation d’un enfant des rues soupçonné de vol,
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d’autres auraient saccagé le bureau du commissariat de police du marché central, dont le
commandant aurait été grièvement blessé. Des policiers militaires auraient ensuite procédé à
l’arrestation d’au moins 420 enfants de la rue, âgés de 2 à 17 ans. Certains auraient été amenés
aux services spéciaux de la police Kin Maziere et d’autres à l’état-major du Commandement du
bataillon mobile Kin Ouest de la police près de l’hôpital général de Kinshasa. La nuit du
mercredi 15 août 2001, sur instruction du Gouverneur ad interim de la ville de Kinshasa, des
patrouilles de la police auraient procédé à l’arrestation d’autres enfants qui auraient été conduits
à l’Inspection provinciale de la police de Kinshasa. Le 16 août 2001, à l’issue d’une réunion
entre le Gouverneur a.i. de la ville et une organisation non gouvernementale (ONG) appelée
«ECO/ASBL» plus ou moins 366 enfants de la rue, dont une soixantaine des filles, auraient été
conduits au siège de cette ONG dans la commune de Ngaliema en vue d’être transférés au site
Mitendi devant être réaménagé à cet effet par le Gouvernement. Plusieurs filles qui faisaient
partie de ce groupe auraient fait l’objet de harcèlements sexuels, et certaines d’entre elles
auraient même été violées par des membres de la police.
Egypt
17. By letter sent on 30 September 2001 with the Special Rapporteur on torture the Special
Rapporteur advised the Government that she had received information on the following
individual case.
18. Salha Sayid Qasim, a 37-year-old housemaid, was reportedly taken from the house of one
of her employers to Giza Police Headquarters by two plainclothes security officers on 3 March
2000 on suspicion of burglary. There, she was reportedly blindfolded and whipped with a stick
on her back, legs and head. An officer allegedly told her to take off her clothes and to turn
towards them. The officer then reportedly threatened her with sexual abuse, including gang rape
by the officers. After several hours of abuse, she was reportedly sent to spend the night
handcuffed in a cell with a male prisoner. The next day, she was allegedly given electric shocks
and beaten severely on her body and head with a stick for over an hour in order to extract a
confession. She was reportedly released on 4 March 2000 without charge. On 13 March 2000, a
complaint was reportedly filed with the Public Prosecutor’s Office.
19. On 6 June 2001, the Special Rapporteur sent a joint urgent appeal with the Special
Representative of the Secretary-General on human rights defenders and the Special Rapporteur
on freedom of opinion and expression on behalf of Nawal El Saadawi, a writer and eminent
defender of women’s rights. According to information received, a legal proceeding has been
launched in order to annul on the grounds of apostasy the 37-year-long marriage of
Nawal El Saadawi and her husband, Sheriff Hetata. This proceeding is reportedly based on an
interview with Nawal El Saadwi, published in an Egyptian weekly newspaper, “Al Midan”,
on 6 March 2001, in which she was reportedly critical of certain religious practices. It has been
reported that Ms. El Saadawi’s statements, which related to historical facts and to her views on
the wearing of the veil by women, polygamy and the inequality of women with regard to
inheritance law, were misquoted by the newspaper. According to the source, a lawyer named
Nabih El Wahch lodged a complaint before the General Prosecutor and the Cairo Court for
Personal Status Affairs, accusing her of contempt of Islam and asking for her separation from her
husband. The request is reportedly based on a Muslim precedent known as Hisba, which permits
any Muslim to introduce proceedings against another Muslim who is considered guilty of
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violating an Islamic obligation. The Special Rapporteurs have been informed that while the
General Prosecutor rejected, on 23 May 2001, the complaint filed against Ms. El Saadawi, the
case is still pending before the Cairo Court for Personal Status Affairs. The hearing was
scheduled to take place on 18 June 2001.
20. According to information received, Nawal El Saadawi had previously been subjected to
harassment because of her activities as a women’s rights activist. According to that information,
she was given an 11-year prison sentence in 1981 for her activities and, in 1991, the Arab
Women’s Solidarity Association, which she founded, was banned. It is further reported that
in 2001, several of her books were prohibited from being exhibited at the Cairo Book Fair.
Ethiopia
21. On 18 September, the Special Rapporteur sent an urgent appeal with the Special
Representative of the Secretary-General on human rights defenders on behalf of the Ethiopian
Women Law Association (EWLA), based in Addis Ababa, which was reportedly forced to
suspend its activities on 31 August 2001. EWLA is an organization which provides counselling
to women victims of human rights abuses, assists them in securing legal remedies, raises public
and government awareness of discrimination and violence against women and encourages
corrective action. It has been reported that on 3 September 2001, EWLA received a decision
dated 31 August 2001 from the Ministry of Justice which was signed by the Chief of the Registry
of Association. According to the decision, entitled “Notice of Suspension of the Association”,
the EWLA “has been found out acting beyond its mandate and the Code of Conduct Guidelines”
and “is hereby suspended as of 30 August 2001 until further notice”. Furthermore, the
Government has frozen the EWLA bank account.
22. It is alleged that this decision is connected to demonstrations organized by the EWLA,
in February 2001, in front of the office of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi and the Parliament, in
which some 1,000 women protested violence against women, calling for stricter laws against
rape and sexual abuse and more effective law enforcement. According to information received,
another factor leading to the Government’s decision was the involvement of EWLA in a recent
case concerning a girl, Hermela Wosenyeleh, who was reportedly continually harassed by a
young man and could not get adequate police protection. It is reported that he finally shot and
wounded her, as well as seriously harming two of her sisters with a machete. EWLA sought to
assist Hermela and her family by writing to the Ministry of Justice seeking his intervention when
the family failed to obtain adequate and timely protection. It also contacted “Ethiopian
Television”, government and private newspapers, as well as “Radio Ethiopia” and “Fana”, which
commented widely on the case. Government officials have reportedly told EWLA that in
speaking out about the case it had made the justice system look bad. According to information
received, all the activities of EWLA have been suspended for the time being and some 50 of its
employees had to be laid off. All the casework carried out by EWLA lawyers in the courts has
reportedly been interrupted. It has been reported that four girls under the care of the association
and for whom it was paying school fees have interrupted their education because its bank
account has been frozen. The Rapporteurs called on the Government to ensure that all possible
means are employed for the removal of any conditions or circumstances that undermine the right,
individually or in association with others, to promote and strive for the protection and realization
of women’s human rights and fundamental freedoms.
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Guinea
23. Par une lettre datée du 3 octobre 2001 envoyée conjointement avec les Rapporteurs
spéciaux sur les exécutions extrajudiciaires, sommaires ou arbitraires, sur la torture, sur la
promotion et la protection du droit à la liberté d’opinion et d’expression et sur l’indépendance
des juges et des avocats, la Rapporteuse spéciale a informé le Gouvernement qu’il avait reçu des
renseignements concernant le procès d’Alpha Condé, président du Rassemblement du peuple
de Guinée (RPG), un des principaux dirigeants de l’opposition et candidat aux élections
présidentielles de décembre 1998, et de ses 47 coaccusés. Alpha Condé aurait été arrêté et
frappé au moment de son arrestation par des militaires à Piné, en région de Guinée forestière,
le 15 décembre 1998. Au moment de son arrestation, il aurait été accusé de vouloir se rendre
en Côte d’Ivoire alors que les frontières du pays étaient fermées en raison des élections.
Ben Karamoko Kourouma, garde du corps d’Alpha Condé, Antoine Gbogolo Soromou,
ancien maire de Lola, et son chauffeur Michel Lah Gonga, ainsi que Morifing Sagno, un
villageois de Piné chez lequel Alpha Condé se serait réfugié et Vassezé Diomandé auraient été
arrêtés le même jour en raison de leurs supposés liens avec Alpha Condé. Ils auraient tous été
transférés par avion militaire à Conakry où pendant un mois Alpha Condé aurait été détenu au
secret dans divers centres de détention non reconnus, dont le camp Koundara (des baraquements
militaires de l’unité de la sécurité de l’État). Il aurait été interrogé par des membres d’une unité
antigang directement responsable auprès du Ministre de l’intérieur. Le 28 décembre 1998, il
aurait ainsi été présenté devant un magistrat. Il aurait été transféré à la prison centrale de
Conakry le 13 janvier 1999 et aurait à ce moment-là été formellement inculpé.
24. Entre le 7 octobre 1999 et janvier 2000, plus de 30 personnes, la plupart des membres des
forces armées, auraient été arrêtées en relation avec l’arrestation d’Alpha Condé. La plupart des
personnes arrêtées auraient été soumises à différentes méthodes de torture telles que des coups,
gifles, coups de poing et de pied sur différentes parties du corps, dont les parties génitales.
Certains auraient subi des simulacres de noyade et auraient été menacés de mort. Ces actes
auraient la plupart du temps été commis juste après l’arrestation dans les commissariats de police
ou des baraquements militaires. Certains auraient été emprisonnés dans une cellule connue sous
le nom de la cellule de «l’enfer» dans l’île de Kassa, qui serait une cellule de petite dimension,
placée sous une cuve d’eau, dans laquelle les détenus seraient forcés de rester debout et seraient
régulièrement inondés d’eau. Ces actes auraient eu pour but d’obtenir des confessions
incriminant Alpha Condé, en échange desquelles une libération était promise.
25. Le procès d’Alpha Condé et de ses coaccusés n’aurait commencé que le 12 avril 2000 et
aurait principalement été basé sur des confessions obtenues sous la torture. Ce n’est qu’à partir
de l’ouverture du procès que certains des coaccusés auraient eu le droit de recevoir des visites de
leur famille. La fille de l’un des détenus sur l’île de Kassa aurait été arrêtée et détenue pendant
trois jours, durant lesquels elle aurait été menacée de viol. La femme d’un de ces détenus aurait
elle aussi été arrêtée et aurait reçu 10 coups de fouet. Les 48 détenus auraient été jugés par la
Cour de sûreté de l’État, cour créée le 10 juillet 1985 par le Président Clansana Conté. Cette
cour, aux pouvoirs permanents et spéciaux, serait composée de magistrats nommés directement
par le Président de la République (art. 634 (3) du Code de procédure pénal) et aurait pour
juridiction tous les crimes d’atteinte à la sécurité de l’État. Les juges auraient été dans ce cas
nommés par un décret présidentiel daté du 4 août 1999, soit après l’arrestation d’Alpha Condé.
Pendant le procès, un certain nombre d’accusés, dont les membres des forces armées, auraient
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témoigné que leur confession incriminant Alpha Condé avait été obtenue sous la contrainte. En
particulier, Ben Karamoko Kourama aurait montré les blessures qu’il avait encore sur les bras, le
dos et les hanches au moment du procès. Ces confessions auraient néanmoins été acceptées
comme preuves par la cour, qui n’aurait pas demandé l’ouverture d’une enquête. Le procureur
public aurait par ailleurs qualifié ces témoignages de manoeuvres de la défense. Alpha Condé
aurait été condamné à cinq ans de prison le 11 septembre 2000. Quinze de ses coaccusés auraient
été condamnés à diverses peines allant de un an d’emprisonnement avec sursis à cinq ans
d’emprisonnement ferme. Vingt-trois coaccusés auraient été acquittés, alors que 10 autres
auraient été acquittés «avec le bénéfice du doute». Quatre autres coaccusés auraient été
condamnés in abstentia à 10 ans d’emprisonnement ferme.
26. Suite à l’arrestation d’Alpha Condé, un certain nombre de manifestations pacifiques se
seraient déroulées réclamant sa libération et visant à contester les résultats du scrutin. Lors de ces
manifestations, en particulier en décembre 1998, des centaines de personnes auraient été arrêtées
dans plusieurs villes, dont Kankan, Baro et Siguiry, et torturées, en particulier aux camps
militaires Soundiata à Kankan et Alpha Yaya à Conakry, avant d’être relâchées ou condamnées à
des peines de prison fermes. Un grand nombre de femmes, en particulier des mineures, auraient
été violées lors de ces arrestations. Des femmes auraient témoigné de leur viol, souvent collectif,
lors de leur procès. Les magistrats auraient ignoré ces témoignages et auraient demandé aux
victimes de «tourner la page». Mamadou Kourouma aurait été arrêté lors d’un rassemblement
pacifique dans l’après-midi du 21 décembre 1998 chez le doyen Le Hadj Amiata Kaba, un
député du RPG. Il aurait été emmené au camp Soundiata où trois militaires l’auraient allongé sur
une table avant de le battre avec des matraques. Suite aux arrestations survenues à Kankan et
Siguiry en décembre 1998, plus de 60 personnes, dont des députés et des conseillers municipaux,
ont été jugées par le tribunal de première instance de Kankan pour «participation à une marche
non autorisée et incitation à la violence». Le 16 mars 1999, 38 accusés ont été condamnés à des
peines comprises entre quatre mois et cinq ans d’emprisonnement assorties d’amendes
importantes. Les conditions de détention auraient été particulièrement mauvaises. Jusqu’à
30 personnes auraient été enfermées dans des cellules de 4 mètres carrés, avec un seul trou dans
le mur pour servir de système d’aération. Le Hadj Biro Diallo, le Président de l’Assemblée
nationale, aurait été exclu de son parti, le Parti de L’unité et du progrès, pour avoir dénoncé, y
compris dans une lettre au chef de l’État, ces violations des droits de l’homme. En janvier 1999,
il aurait adressé un courrier au Président de la République pour réitérer son opposition à la
torture et aurait inclus un document vidéo dans lequel des victimes montraient les blessures
subies lors de leur arrestation et détention. Selon les informations reçues, aucune enquête
n’aurait été ouverte.
India
27. By letter dated 10 August 2001 sent jointly with the Special Rapporteur on torture, the
Special Rapporteur advised the Government that she had received information on the following
individual cases.
28. Misra, wife of Nazam u din was reportedly raped by personnel of the 25th Reshtriya
Rifles (RR) and the 8th RR on 28 January 1998 in her house, in the village of Mailgam Prem
Nager, Tehsil Doda, State of Jammu and Kashmir, including by a captain. Another woman was
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reportedly raped by the same men at around the same time. A first information report (FIR) has
reportedly been lodged but no legal action has allegedly been taken. Since then, Misra and her
family have reportedly received death threats.
29. Lala Begum, wife of Fateh Mohammad, was reportedly raped by a soldier
on 7 May 1999 in her house in Persholla village, Doda tehsil and district, State of Jammu and
Kashmir. Three members of the 8th RR from Gulmana camp reportedly entered her house and
severely beat the inhabitants, including her father-in-law and some minors. She was allegedly
taken into a room, stripped and beaten. Although she was reportedly eight months pregnant, she
was reportedly raped by one of the soldiers and threatened with death not to tell anybody about
the incident. At the police station in Doda, an officer allegedly refused to register her complaint.
30. Jyotsna Bal was reportedly taken by plainclothes police from her home to Gariahat and
subsequently to Lal Bazar police lock-up on 21 April 1999. During transfer, she was allegedly
beaten. She was reportedly later told that she was arrested on charges of theft of several pieces
of furniture, filed by her husband’s relatives, who were believed to have been motivated by a
housing dispute. She was reportedly remanded in custody until 26 April, despite being ill.
On 23 April, she was taken to the Medical College hospital where she was allegedly given some
unidentified medicine. On 24 April, she was reportedly told to sign papers, including blank
papers, at Gariahat station. When she refused, she was reportedly slapped, had her hair pulled
and was threatened with prolonged detention. Upon release on 26 April, the police allegedly told
her not to return to her property until 10 May, where her husband’s family had moved in. She
allegedly continues to fear harassment from the police.
31. Sarva Begum, wife of Muhammad Sharief Khan, was reportedly raped by four
men belonging to the Village Defence Committee (VDC) and Special Task Force (STF) in
her residence in Kantoyee village, Kashtigargh, Doda district, State of Jammu and Kashmir,
on the night of 30/31 January 2000. Soldiers reportedly forcibly entered her house, and
brought her to the stable, where four of them allegedly raped her. Although a FIR was registered
on 7 February 2000, the police is said to have taken no action. She and her family are believed
to have been receiving death threats since.
32. Rupa Nath, aged 11, and her sister, Oirabati Nath, were reportedly arrested by
Gogamukh police in the State of Assam, on 2 February 2000. In custody, they were allegedly
interrogated and severely beaten. The next day, they were reportedly handed over to Ghilamara
police station, where they were repeatedly raped by officers. Rupa Nath was allegedly later left
on the highway near 2nd Culvert of Gogamukh. Once released, they were reportedly taken to
Gogamukh hospital.
33. The following 12 women, Sala, Renuka, Bhavani, Umayavalli, Chelli, Amutha,
Nagarani, Palayam, Kannagi, Veerammal, Velankanni and Indira, and two children,
Anand and Mani, were reportedly ill-treated in connection with the case of Nathan, who
reportedly died in custody at F-1 police station, Tamil Nadu on 17 February 2000,
following alleged torture. On 11 February 2000, Sala, his wife, was reportedly beaten in
custody in Chennai and had her fingers bent backwards. A day later, Renuka, Bhavani,
Umayavalli, Chelli and Amutha were reportedly arrested, pulled by the hair, beaten and sexually
and verbally abused. On 13 February 2000, Veerammal, Nathan’s mother, Nagarani, Palayam,
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Kannagi, Velankanni and Indira were reportedly beaten on the hands and verbally abused.
Anand and Mani were reportedly detained on 13 February, and Anand was allegedly pierced
with a needle in his genitals.
34. Nazira Begum was allegedly gagged and raped by two members of the 8th RR, based at
Bharat, on 5 April 2000, while her husband was in custody. They reportedly threatened that if
she did not give information on the whereabouts of her husband’s weapons, they would shoot her
and throw her into the river. They allegedly warned her that if she told anyone her husband
would be killed.
35. Mariam Yousuf Gujjar, aged 19, wife of Muhammad Yousaf, was reportedly raped by
five men of the 26th RR on 11 April 2000, close to her residence in Patzani village, Banjwa,
Thathri tehsil State of Jammu and Kashmir. On 10 April 1999, her husband was reportedly
taken to a nearby army camp by a group of about 16 armed soldiers. The next day, soldiers
allegedly returned to her home, asking for his whereabouts. While the other inhabitants were
reportedly beaten and locked away, she was gagged and raped. She allegedly lost consciousness.
She was reportedly examined by a doctor on 12 April 2000 in the Doda district hospital.
36. Mercy Kabui was reportedly raped at gunpoint by two members of the 112th battalion of
the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) at her home in Lamdan Khullen village in
Churachandpur district of Manipur in July 2000. Her husband, Akham, was reportedly beaten
by order of the assistant commander and her father-in-law, Maringmi Thaitounga, the village
chief of Lamdan Khullen, was reportedly forcibly prevented by an officer from intervening on
their behalf. Following the departure of the CRPF personnel, Maringmi Thaitounga allegedly
reported the incident to the commanding officer of the army camp and lodged a complaint at
Loktak police station. CRPF officials stationed in Lamdan reportedly denied the accusations.
The police reportedly initiated an investigation. However, the CRPF reportedly failed to
cooperate, so that it was not concluded.
37. Sakina Begum, Naseema Begum and Hasina Begum were reportedly raped by members
of the 8th RR on 1 June 2001 in Behota, Mermat, a day after the visit of human rights defenders
to the area and while all their male relatives were away from the house. Sakina Begum, who is
elderly, was allegedly beaten on the head and back with a stick, kicked in the abdomen and then
raped by a soldier. Nasema and Hasina Begum were reportedly beaten with rifle butts. Nasima
Begum was reportedly raped by one soldier while two others held her down, and her baby was
allegedly thrown to the floor. Hasina Begum was said to have been raped by two soldiers. At
Doda district hospital, the staff allegedly did not produce accurate medical reports. An FIR was
lodged at Doda police station, but no action has reportedly been taken.
38. By letter dated 30 August 2001 sent jointly with the Special Rapporteurs on extrajudicial,
summary or arbitrary executions and on torture, the Special Rapporteur advised the Government
that she had received information on the following individual cases.
39. Malik, Manikandan, Samual, Subetha (f), Laila Beevi (f), Vijayalakshmi (f),
Subbulakshmi (f), Mary (f), Malika (f), Kallathiyan, Isakki, Rajammal (f), Chandran (f),
Victoria (f), Pappa (f), Lakshi Ammal (f), Seetha Laakshmi (f) and K. Parvathy (f) were
reportedly victims of excessive use of force by the police on 23 July 1999 during a peaceful
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protest march of Manjolai tea estate workers and their supporters, in Tirunelveli, south
Tamil Nadu. The demonstrators are said to have marched to the Tirunelveli District Collector’s
office to demand the release of 652 tea workers previously detained for holding a peaceful rally.
According to the information received, police resorted to charging with lathis, using tear gas and
firing shots to disperse the demonstrators. Once the demonstration was dispersed, police are
alleged to have kept beating demonstrators. It is reported that women who were taken to
Tirunelveli police station were stripped naked, beaten and verbally humiliated. Furthermore, the
following people reportedly died as a result of the alleged police brutality during the dispersal of
the march: Sha Navas, Josphin (f), Murugan, Raju, Arumugam, Rathinam, Jayaseelan,
Kutti Kumar, John Boopalarayar, Ennacy Manickam, Anthony, Sanjeevi, Vignesh,
Rathinamary (f), Velayudam, Keisar and Abdul Rahman.
Indonesia
40. By letter dated 30 September 2001 sent jointly with the Special Rapporteur on torture, the
Special Rapporteur advised the Government that she had received information on the following
individual cases.
41. Sumiati Binti Hamzah was reportedly raped at gunpoint by a member of the
North Sumatra (Aceh) based Territorial Battalion Yonif 126 on 16 August 1996. Upon
discovering that she was pregnant as a result of the attack, she allegedly asked her attacker to
provide her with financial compensation and was reportedly offered the equivalent of US$ 500
on condition that she did not report the case. In March 2000, a military tribunal in Medan
reportedly ruled that the perpetrator should pay the victim 50,000 rupiah per month as
maintenance for the child, but no one has reportedly been held responsible for the rape.
42. A number of women were reportedly raped and sexually assaulted in the village of
Alue Lhok in Matangkuli sub-district, North Aceh district by men wearing military uniforms
searching for members of the Free Aceh Movement (Gereakan Aceh Merdeka, (GAM)) on the
night of 7 March 2000. Their male relatives were reportedly tied up and beaten. A fact-finding
team headed by the Aceh branch of the National Commission on Human Rights (Komnas HAM)
is said to have reported that three women had been raped and that the military appeared to be
responsible. No one has reportedly been arrested, charged or brought to trial in connection with
the cases.
43. Maria Pompeia was reportedly subjected to sexual harassment and beatings by a public
servant and a member of the Makikit militia on 20 March 1999, in Dilo village, Lacluta
sub-district. She was allegedly stripped, touched on her whole body and taken to the
sub-district military command. During the transfer, she and her three children were said to have
been beaten and kicked. Aniceto dos Santos Xavier, aged 16, was allegedly hit with a rifle,
Jose da Costa Nunes, aged 14, with an arrow, and Justo Mesak, aged 5, pulled by the hair.
Olinda Pinto Martins, aged 41, was reportedly also beaten during the same incident.
44. Candida Maria was reportedly raped on 25 April 1999 by a commander of Laksaur
Merah Putih militia and a second sergeant of TNI, who is also said to be the head of Belulik
Leten village. She was allegedly raped in connection with the escape of her husband, and
threatened with death.
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45. Fernanda Beitau, a 17-year-old student from Taroman hamlet, was reportedly raped by a
member of the TNI back-up Laksaur Merah Putih militia on 26 May 1999.
46. Azelia Amaral was reportedly raped by a commander of Laksaur Merah Putih militia and
a civil servant at the Department of Education on 31 May 1999.
47. Jacinta (no surname) was reportedly raped by a commander of the TNI back-up Mahidi
militia. According to the information received, the incident occurred in Hare Kain village,
Mape, Zumulai, Covalina in May 1999.
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
48. On 23 January 2001, the Special Rapporteur sent a joint urgent appeal with the Special
Representative on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Special
Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions and the Special Rapporteur on
torture, on behalf of Maryam Ayoubi, who had reportedly been sentenced to death by stoning
for the murder of her husband. Her accomplice, Hossein Esna ‘Asharyhas, had reportedly also
been sentenced to death.
49. On 8 August 2001, the Special Rapporteur sent a joint urgent appeal with the Special
Representative on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran on behalf of
Soraya Dalaian, and concerning the use of sexual torture in Evin Prison, Tehran. According
to information received, Soraya Dalaian was repeatedly raped by two men over a period
of 24 hours during her stay in Evin Prison in 1997. It is reported that it is not an isolated case
and that women prisoners are systematically subject to rape by judges and high-ranking
officials in prison. It is alleged that there are suites available in the prison for that specific
purpose. According to press reports of 16 April 2001, during the trial of Esmail Eftekhari Nasr,
the commander of the local urban Revolutionary Guards centre in Tehran’s 12th district, it was
alleged that he and his subordinates had kidnapped a number of young girls and after raping
and murdering them, had dumped their bodies in different parts of Tehran. Mr. Eftekhari
was subsequently sentenced to five years in jail, while ordinary citizens would reportedly
receive much harsher sentences. The Rapporteurs also expressed their distress over the
execution by stoning of Maryam Ayoubi on 11 July 2001. They urged the Government to
remove article 82 (b) concerning stoning from the Islamic Code and to actively undertake a
policy of suppressing recourse to stoning throughout the country.
50. By letter dated 9 November 2001 the Government responded regarding the case
of Sorayya Dalaiean. It stated that she was arrested and sentenced to imprisonment
on 10 November 1997 and was released on 8 January 1998. She was again sentenced to
imprisonment on 28 April 1998 and released on 3 May 1998. She was further sentenced to
imprisonment on 2 August 1998 and released on 23 September 1998. The Government stated
that there were no political overtones to her conviction. The Government did not respond to the
allegations of the use of sexual torture in Evin Prison, Tehran.
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Observations
51. The Special Rapporteur remains concerned about violence against women in Iran and
requests the Government to respond to the allegations of the use of sexual torture in Evin Prison,
Tehran.
Israel
52. On 26 September 2001, the Special Rapporteur sent a joint urgent appeal with the Special
Rapporteur on torture, on behalf of female Palestinian prisoners, including a child, in the
Neve Tirtza women’s prison in Ramle. On 13 September 2001, the prison wardens were said to
have entered the cells reserved for women and to have taken Maha Al-A’ak, Abeer Amer,
Suad Ghazal, Wijdan Buji and Rab’a Hamael, aged 14, to isolation, while Amen Muna was
taken to a different section holding convicted criminals. The other women, fearful for the latter’s
safety, were said to have started shouting, at which point the wardens were believed to have
beaten them. They were said to have tied their spread arms and legs to their beds with plastic
restraints that were tight to the point of causing swelling and severe pain for one night.
53. On 16 October 2001, the Special Rapporteur sent a joint urgent appeal with the
Special Rapporteur on torture, on behalf of female Palestinian prisoners held at Neve Tirtza
women’s prison in Ramle, on behalf of whom the Special Rapporteurs had already
intervened on 26 September 2001 (see above). They were said to have started on a hunger
strike on 1 October 2001 as a protest against the alleged repressive attitude of the prison
administration, following a series of beatings on 13 September 2001. It was believed that during
the hunger strike, the detainees were refused rations of milk and salt and were not permitted to
take recreation time outside their cells. Rab’a Hamael, Sanna Amer and Sawsan Abu Turki,
all aged 14, were held in isolation cells. Sawsan Abu Turki who had reportedly been arrested
on 6 September 2001 on charges of attempting to stab an Israeli soldier was said to have a
history of psychological problems. She had reportedly been hospitalized in July 2001 for three
days after having been hit on the head by an Israeli soldier. It was said that while her family
supplied the medication she needs in order to treat her various medical problems, the prison
administration has constantly refused to pass this medication on to her or to provide her with
other medical care. Her psychological state has allegedly deteriorated to the extent that she is no
longer able to clearly distinguish her identity. When the court was reportedly asked to have an
impartial and culturally-sensitive psychological examination conducted to assess her fitness to
stand trial, it is alleged that an Israeli psychologist visited her for approximately five minutes,
filled in a questionnaire and declared her to be psychologically fit to stand trial.
Kenya
54. By letter dated 30 September 2001 sent jointly with the Special Rapporteur on torture, the
Special Rapporteur advised the Government that she had received information concerning
Sophia Dolar, Pauline Wanjiru and Ester Wairimu, who were reportedly arrested in
March 2000 with eight other human rights activists, held for five days in Nakuru Prison,
Rift Valley Province. Upon arrival, the women were reportedly forced to strip naked in full view
of other prisoners and jeering prison guards, and beaten with sticks during interrogation. They
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were allegedly held in a large overcrowded cell holding 39 women, many of whom were ill.
When they refused to eat uncooked food, they were reportedly beaten with canes and forced to
eat the food. No official investigation is said to have been carried out.
Lebanon
55. Par une lettre datée du 30 septembre 2001 envoyée conjointement avec le Rapporteur sur la
torture, le Rapporteur spécial a informé le Gouvernement qu’il avait reçu des renseignements
selon lesquels, lors de leur arrestation et détention, les femmes souffriraient de discriminations
particulières dues à leur statut de femmes et seraient souvent soumises aux tortures et autres
formes de mauvais traitements, dont les viols et autres abus sexuels. Ces derniers seraient en
particulier dus au fait que les membres des forces de l’ordre, en particulier de la police, seraient
majoritairement des hommes qui, de plus, n’auraient reçu aucune formation spécifique dans ce
domaine. Les femmes accusées d’avoir commis des crimes seraient abandonnées par leur
famille, ce qui les rendraient encore plus vulnérables à l’égard des forces de l’ordre. Cela
signifierait aussi qu’un certain nombre d’entre elles n’auraient plus alors les moyens financiers
nécessaires pour se garantir une aide juridique.
56. Les principales formes de mauvais traitements subies par les femmes seraient les suivantes:
viols et tentatives de viols, insertion de divers objets dans le corps, coups et brûlures sur des
parties sensibles du corps, mise à nu forcée et dévoilement des parties intimes et utilisation
d’insultes à caractère sexuel. Les gardes masculins envahiraient l’intimité des cellules des
femmes de manière arbitraire et les priveraient d’accès aux toilettes qui leur sont spécifiquement
destinées. Certaines femmes auraient aussi été obligées d’être les témoins des tortures endurées
par des membres de leur famille.
57. Le Rapporteur spécial a transmis des renseignements selon lesquels les conditions de
détention dans les prisons pour femmes situées à Ba’abda, Tipoli, Zhale dans la Bequ’a, et à
Barbar al-Khazen à Beyrouth seraient cruelles, inhumaines et dégradantes. Les prisonnières de
droit commun représenteraient près de 4,7 % de la population carcérale. Dans ces prisons, un
nombre important de détenues seraient malades et ne recevraient pas l’attention médicale dont
elles auraient besoin. Elles seraient maintenues, comme les autres détenues, dans des conditions
inadéquates, en particulier en ce qui concerne l’hygiène, les installations sanitaires et la
ventilation. Les dortoirs seraient surpeuplés et humides, ce qui leur ferait courir de sérieux
risques pour leur santé. Les dortoirs seraient par ailleurs infestés d’insectes. En outre, les
détenues n’auraient pas de lit et dormiraient à même le sol, utilisant des matelas en mousse. Les
détenues seraient la plupart du temps enfermées dans leurs cellules et n’auraient pratiquement
pas accès à de l’air frais, ni l’opportunité de faire des exercices physiques. D’après les
informations reçues, des femmes de tout âge, y compris des mineures, seraient détenues
ensemble, dans des lieux sans installations prévues pour les femmes enceintes ou pour les
femmes détenues avec leurs enfants. De plus, il n’existerait pas de lieu spécifique de détention
provisoire pour les femmes. La société civile aurait dénoncé ces conditions de détention en
plusieurs occasions.
58. Le Rapporteur spécial a également transmis des renseignements concernant les cas
individuels suivants.
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59. Bassima Huriya, une jeune fille de nationalité syrienne, aurait été arrêtée le 23 mars 1997
alors qu’elle avait 16 ans, et aurait été accusée d’avoir été impliquée dans le meurtre de son
fiancé. Elle aurait été détenue durant 20 jours par la police judiciaire (Dabita al’adliyya) au poste
de police de Ba’abda, où elle aurait été détenue dans une cellule avec des adultes. Pendant sa
détention, elle aurait été interrogée et battue par des policiers en civil. Elle aurait été suspendue à
une porte par les poignets, reçu des coups de poing sur les oreilles et aurait été frappée contre
une armoire. Elle aurait également été soumise à la méthode dit du poulet (farruj), qui
consisterait à attacher la victime à une barre en bois, à la suspendre et à la battre à coups de
bâton. Les mauvais traitements auraient été arrêtés quatre jours avant qu’elle soit présentée
devant un magistrat qui, en réponse à son témoignage sur les tortures qu’elle aurait subies, lui
aurait répondu que toute personne qui comparaissait devant lui se plaignait d’avoir été battue.
Elle aurait été jugée en 1998 et condamnée, le 2 février 2000, à cinq ans de prison fermes.
60. Fatima Yunes aurait été arrêtée par des membres de la Sécurité de l’État (Amn al-dawleh)
le 26 octobre 1998, en relation avec le meurtre de son mari. Elle aurait été détenue au bureau de
la Sécurité de l’État de Tyre pendant quatre jours. Durant sa détention elle n’aurait pas eu accès à
un avocat, elle aurait eu droit à aucune visite et aurait été soumise à de mauvais traitements par
huit hommes habillés en civil. En particulier, elle aurait été assise sur une chaise et battue,
soumise à la méthode dite du farruj et brûlée avec des cigarettes. Elle aurait perdu connaissance
et aurait fini par signer une confession. Lorsqu’elle aurait comparu devant le magistrat en charge
de son dossier, elle aurait dénoncé avoir été victime de tortures et aurait montré des marques sur
son corps et ses jambes. Le magistrat en question aurait ouvert une nouvelle enquête mais
n’aurait pas ordonné d’examen médical.
61. Lebnayniya ’Abdallah, âgée de 16 ans au moment des faits, aurait été arrêtée en 1993 et
accusée d’incitation au meurtre de son beau-fils. Elle aurait été conduite au poste de police de
Remeila à Tripoli et ensuite à Zgharta où elle aurait été détenue pendant 21 jours, durant lesquels
elle aurait été obligée de dormir sur une chaise. Elle aurait été fouettée par six ou sept personnes.
Elle aurait été obligée de se dénuder jusqu’à la taille. Elle aurait été soumise à la technique du
farruj. Elle n’aurait pourtant jamais avoué avoir commis le crime qu’on lui reprochait. Ses
interrogateurs l’auraient menacée de nouvelles tortures si elle se plaignait au magistrat en charge
de son dossier. Elle aurait ensuite été transférée dans les prisons pour femmes de Tripoli et
Ba’abda. Bien que mineure, elle aurait été détenue avec des adultes. En 1999, elle aurait été
condamnée à la peine de mort bien que ses coïnculpés auraient témoigné qu’elle était innocente.
La cour de cassation aurait finalement jugé en appel qu’elle était innocente et elle aurait été
relâchée.
62. Heba Ma’sarani aurait été arrêtée le 14 juin 1997 et accusée de la mort de son mari, qui se
serait en fait suicidé. Elle aurait été emmenée au poste de police du port de Tripoli (Makhfar
al-Mina) où elle aurait été interrogée pendant deux jours. Les agents de police l’auraient
déshabillée et auraient tenté de la violer, mais le chef du poste les en aurait empêchés. Celui-ci
aurait ordonné le transfert de Heba Ma’sarani au poste de police de Bab al-Ramla, à Tripoli, où
elle aurait été amenée devant un magistrat instructeur avant d’être torturée pendant sept jours
sans pourtant être interrogée. Elle aurait été violée par des membres de la Dabita al’adliyya de
nuit et en l’absence du chef du poste de police. Elle aurait aussi été soumise à la méthode dite du
farruj ainsi qu’à la méthode dite du dullab, qui consisterait à suspendre la victime au moyen
d’une chambre à air et à la battre. Elle aurait finalement été transférée sur ordre d’un magistrat
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dans une prison. Son procès aurait débuté neuf mois après son arrestation et se serait prolongé
durant 18 mois. Elle aurait par la suite été transférée à l’hôpital-prison de Tripoli, ne pesant
que 36 kilogrammes.
63. Le Rapporteur spécial a aussi transmis des renseignements concernant des femmes
accusées de «collaboration» avec Israël, qui auraient été torturées dans le but de leur soutirer des
confessions. Elles seraient détenues pendant de longues périodes au secret dans des centres de
détention où le personnel serait entièrement masculin. Elles seraient en particulier détenues au
centre de détention du Ministère de la défense où elles subiraient des interrogatoires musclés.
Ces femmes seraient ensuite jugées par des cours militaires. Les Rapporteurs spéciaux ont en
particulier transmis des renseignements sur les cas individuels suivants.
64. Huyam ’Ali ’Alyan aurait été arrêtée en mars 2001 par des membres de Al-Mukhabarat
al-’Askariyya, suite à sa visite à des parents emprisonnés à la prison de Rumieh. Les yeux bandés
et les mains menottées, elle aurait été emmenée à Sido Barracks, puis au centre de détention du
Ministère de la défense, où elle aurait été maintenue au secret pendant 16 jours, durant lesquels
elle aurait été battue et menacée par des agents masculins. Elle aurait été frappée sur tout le
corps, y compris le dos, le ventre et les parties génitales. Elle n’aurait pas reçu de soins médicaux
et n’aurait pas reçu de serviettes hygiéniques pour contenir le sang. Ceci aurait provoqué un
prolapsus (glissement) de l’utérus. Durant sa détention au secret, elle aurait été forcée de rester
continuellement assise sur une chaise dans un couloir dans le but de l’empêcher de dormir. Elle
aurait été obligée d’être témoin des tortures qu’aurait subies son oncle. Un procureur militaire
l’aurait fait examiner par un médecin légiste et d’après le rapport de ce dernier, daté du
11 avril 2001, elle aurait eu des contusions aux bras et poignets cohérentes avec ses allégations.
Elle aurait comparu devant la Cour militaire de Beyrouth en juin 2001 et celle-ci l’aurait
condamnée pour avoir «collaboré» avec Israël. Elle se trouverait à présent à la prison de
Barbar al-Khazen, à Beyrouth.
65. Khadija Hussain Marwa aurait été arrêtée chez elle dans le village de Kafr Hatti au sud
du Liban en août 1999 par des membres de Al-Mukhabarat al-’Askariyya et soupçonnée de
«collaboration» avec Israël. Elle aurait été détenue au secret au centre de détention du Ministère
de la défense où elle aurait été privée des médicaments qu’elle prenait de manière régulière et
aurait été contrainte d’avouer avoir «collaboré» avec Israël. Elle aurait été libérée en août 2000
après avoir servi sa peine dans la prison pour femmes de Beyrouth.
66. Huda Yamin, Lina Ghurayeb et Muna Shkayban auraient été arrêtées entre le 9
et 12 septembre 1994 en même temps que d’autres personnes soutenant le général ’Aoun. Elles
auraient été accusées d’avoir distribué des tracts critiquant la présence syrienne au Liban. Elles
auraient été détenues pendant plus de deux semaines, pendant lesquelles elles auraient subies des
interrogatoires au Ministère de la défense. Lina Ghurayeb et Muna Shkayban auraient été
contraintes de se déshabiller devant des officiers masculins et l’une d’elles aurait été frappée sur
la poitrine avec un bâton. Elles auraient été tirées par les cheveux et auraient été insultées. Elles
auraient été mises en liberté conditionnelle en 1997 avant d’être condamnées à deux semaines
d’emprisonnement dans le cas de Huda Yamin, et à dix jours, dans le cas de Lina Ghurayeb et
Muna Shkayban.
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67. Finalement, le Rapporteur spécial a transmis des renseignements concernant des femmes
émigrées, qui travaillent souvent comme domestiques. Lorsqu’elles se plaindraient de mauvais
traitements de la part de leurs employeurs, elles seraient soumises à de mauvais traitements
supplémentaires de la part des forces de l’ordre. Les femmes détenues pour des raisons liées à la
drogue et à la prostitution seraient particulièrement vulnérables aux sévices sexuels. Elles
seraient détenues dans des lieux différents des femmes libanaises, en particulier au centre de
détention des étrangers des services généraux de sécurité (al-Amn al-’Amm), ce qui les rendrait
vulnérables aux mauvais traitements et autres abus du fait qu’elles ne comprennent souvent pas
la langue et ne bénéficient pas de la protection des autres femmes détenues d’origine libanaise.
Très peu d’émigrées bénéficieraient d’une assistance juridique. Elles auraient souvent été forcées
de signer des documents dans une langue qu’elles ne comprenaient pas. Certaines émigrées
auraient continué à être détenues après avoir été acquittées ou après avoir terminé leur peine
en raison des pouvoirs discrétionnaires donnés aux services généraux de sécurité en matière
d’application de la loi sur la présence des étrangers au Liban. Certaines pourraient ainsi être
considérées comme des menaces pour la sécurité de l’État ou devraient attendre jusqu’au
moment où elles recevraient les moyens financiers pour se payer leur billet de retour ou les
papiers administratifs permettant leur retour au pays. En particulier, les Rapporteurs spéciaux ont
transmis des renseignements sur les cas individuels suivants.
68. Clarissa Colliante et Elda Esquillo, deux femmes originaires des Philippines, qui auraient
été détenues à la prison centrale pour étrangers après avoir refusé de se soumettre à un ordre du
directeur des services généraux de sécurité de retourner auprès de leurs employeurs, qui, selon
elles, les maltraitaient et refusaient de mettre fin à leur contrat. Elles auraient été détenues au
secret sans faire l’objet d’aucune inculpation. Clarissa Colliante aurait par la suite été déportée
aux Philippines où en 1999 elle aurait gagné un procès contre son ancien employeur. Elda
Esquillo aurait été contrainte de retourner chez son employeur.
69. Farhoud Fakadu, une femme d’origine éthiopienne, aurait été accusée d’avoir tué son
nouveau-né. Elle aurait été détenue en 1997. Elle aurait été frappée par un policier et un docteur
qui l’auraient forcée à signer un document en arabe qu’elle ne comprenait pas. Elle se serait
plainte auprès du magistrat en charge de son dossier. Ce dernier n’aurait pas réagi. Elle aurait
finalement été condamnée en 1999 à trois ans d’emprisonnement.
70. Dans une lettre en date du 26 novembre 2001, le Gouvernement a indiqué que le ministère
public menait des enquêtes dans ces affaires avec les autorités concernées afin d’établir les faits
et d’engager des procédures contre les coupables, au cas où les charges portées contre eux
seraient prouvées.
71. Dans la même lettre, le Gouvernement a indiqué que le Code de procédure pénale
du 2 septembre 2001, tel qu’amendé par la loi no 359 du 16 août 2001, qui entrera en vigueur
le 7 novembre 2001, fixe la durée maximale pour la mise en détention préventive à 48 heures,
pouvant être prolongée de 48 heures supplémentaires, sous réserve de l’approbation du Procureur
de la République.
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Liberia
72. By letter dated 30 September 2001 sent jointly with the Special Rapporteurs on torture and
on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, the Special
Rapporteur advised the Government that she had received information concerning dozens of
university students and professors who were reportedly whipped and severely beaten by
members of the Special Operation Division (SOD) and the Anti-Terrorist Unit (ATU) in
Monrovia, on 21 March 2001, during an alleged peaceful protest against the continued detention
of four journalists. More than 40 students were allegedly arrested by the SOD and the ATU and
more than 20 of them taken to the National Police Headquarters in Monrovia and later released
without charge, bearing visible marks of beatings. At least seven of the female students arrested
were allegedly raped and one of the arrested students had his elbow dislocated.
México
73. El 27 de junio de 2001, la Relatora Especial envió un llamamiento urgente en favor de
Adriana Espinoza Buanabad. Esta mujer habría sido privada de libertad por Jorge Solórzano
Santiago, quien, a través de una empresa denominada "Dental norteamericana" y su red, la habría
mantenido en situación de explotación sexual desde hace cuatro años. En dichas alegaciones de
violencia sexual y trato de blancas se encontrarían involucrados funcionarios públicos del Estado
de Veracruz y Oaxaca. Después de haber recibido una denuncia sobre los hechos el 25 de abril
de 2001, la Procuraduría General de la República habría remitido el caso a las autoridades del
Estado y, a partir de este momento, el seguimiento del caso ya no había avanzado. Sin embargo,
ante los temores de que, tras dicha denuncia, la vida de Adriana Espinoza Buanabad se
encontraría en peligro, la Policía Federal Preventiva habría detenido a Jorge Solórzano Santiago
y lo habría llevado al Ministerio de la Subprocuraduría regional del Istamo para que le sea
tomado el testimonio. También habría sido tomado el testimonio de la persona supuestamente
encargada de vigilar a la afectada. Un peritaje médico y psicológico habría constatado la
violencia física que Adriana Espinoza Buanabad habría sufrido a nivel sexual. De acuerdo con
la información recibida, el juez todavía no habría dado la orden de careo, con lo que se teme que
las personas implicadas en esta supuesta red de explotación sexual tengan tiempo de hacer
desparecer las pruebas restantes. En vista de la supuesta dilación de las instituciones encargadas
de administrar e impartir la justicia, se teme que Adriana Espinoza Buanabad y las demás
jóvenes puedan ser víctimas de represalias.
74. Por carta con fecha 6 de noviembre de 2001, el Gobierno informó de que el 14 de junio
de 2001 se presentó una denuncia de hechos ante la Procuraduría General de Justicia del Estado
de Oaxaca, a partir de la cual se inició la averiguación en contra del Sr. Jorge Solórzano
Santiago, por la presunta comisión de los delitos de violación y privación ilegal de la libertad, en
agravio de Adriana Espinoza Buenabad, Liliana Romero Buenabad y Yazmin del Carmen
Navarrete. En ese misma fecha, la policía detuvo al Sr. Jorge Solórzano Santiago y lo presentó
ante el agente del Ministerio Público del primer turno de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. El agente del
Ministerio Público procedió, por estar en la hipótesis de un caso urgente, a la retención
preventiva de Jorge Solórzano Santiago, al mismo tiempo que se recabaron diversos elementos
de convicción sobre la posible comisión de los delitos de corrupción de menores, pornografía
infantil y demás que se llegaran a configurar, procediendo a solicitar al Juez Primero de lo Penal
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de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, que determinara el arraigo del indiciado. El 15 de junio el Juez libró el
arraigo solicitado dentro del expediente penal como medida cautelar, a fin de desahogar las
diligencias tendientes a la integración de la averiguación previa. El 21 de junio las autoridades
ministeriales procedieron a asignar elementos pertenecientes a la Policía Judicial del Estado, con
el objeto de garantizar la seguridad de las ofendidas. El Ministerio Publico, con base en las
diligencias realizadas dentro de la averiguación, logró establecer la probable responsabilidad de
Jorge Solórzano Santiago y ejercitó acción penal por los delitos de violación y corrupción de
menores. El 2 de julio de 2001, el Juez Segundo de lo Penal de la ciudad de Salina Cruz,
Oaxaca, libró en contra del inculpado la orden de aprehensión solicitada, que cumplió la Policía
Ministerial del Estado. El 2 de julio el inculpado fue recluido en el Centro de Readaptación
Social del citado distrito judicial a efecto de dar inicio al proceso penal correspondiente.
Por otra parte, la Procuraduría General de Justicia del Estado de Veracruz informó que también
tiene iniciadas y en integración las averiguaciones previas, en las que aparece como indiciado
Jorge Solórzano Santiago, al que se le imputan la comisión de los delitos de abusos deshonestos
y acoso sexual en agravio de Elizabeth Fanyuti Hau y Teresa Sánchez Sánchez, respectivamente.
Myanmar
75. By letter dated 30 August 2001 sent jointly with the Special Rapporteurs on extrajudicial,
summary or arbitrary executions and on torture, the Special Rapporteur advised the Government
that she had received information on the following individual cases.
76. Three young women originally from Wan Paang village, Nam-Zarng township, including
two minors and Naang Zing Mya, were reportedly gang-raped by State Peace and Development
Council (SPDC) troops from Company No. 4 of LIB 247 at a farm 3.5 miles from the town, on
24 May 1999. A patrol of about 50 SPDC troops reportedly asked them for their men and they
answered that they had been taken by SPDC troops to serve as porters. A commander reportedly
took one of the minors into a nearby farm, raped her and slapped her until she had bruises all
over her face. The other two women were allegedly gang-raped several times. Naang Zing Mya
was reportedly shot dead when she tried to run away and the two others were subsequently
severely beaten and slapped.
77. Pa Poi, Naang Awng, Naang Mawn and Pa Loi Pe were reportedly arrested
on 30 October 1999 by SPDC troops from LIB 514, under the accusation of having provided rice
for the Shan rebels. They were reportedly taken to a deserted village west of Murng-Kerng
town, gang-raped for one night and found dead the following morning.
78. Naang Ong, Naang Thun Nae and Naang Paan Yaen were reportedly arrested by SPDC
troops from Company No. 3 of LIB 514 in late March 2000, 2.5 miles south of Kae-See town,
Kae-See township, accused of being the wives of Shan rebels. They were tied up and
interrogated about their husbands’ whereabouts. The youngest woman was reportedly taken
away by the patrol commander, who is said to have raped her, while the other two were
raped by two officers. The next day, these two women were allegedly handed over to the
remaining 30 soldiers, who reportedly gang-raped them and subsequently killed them.
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79. Naang Muay Phawng, Naang Zaan Pao, Naang Htun Nae, Naang Khur Wan,
Naang Laao Sai and Naang Seng Hurn, aged 16, all displaced women, were reportedly arrested
by SPDC troops from LIB 248 in late May 2000, near the Kun-Hing-Murng-Paeng road between
Ka Li village relocation site and Kun-Hing town, Kun-Hing township, raped by about 60 soldiers
and subsequently shot dead.
80. Nang Kawng Tip, a 17-year-old girl from Murng In village, Murng Poo tract, Murng-Start
township, was reportedly raped and killed by seven of the SPDC troops from Murng-Sart-based
LIB 527 on 13 April 1999, on the banks of the Nam In stream in the vicinity of the village.
81. Sai Nu, Sai Zitta, Sai Nya-Lintta, Maamg Nguay (f) and Naanf Lern (f), aged 17, were
reportedly arrested by SPDC troops from Company No. 2 of LIB 102 on 11 January 2000, on the
banks of the Nam Paang river in Kun-Hing township, interrogated about the whereabouts of
Shan soldiers in the area and beaten to death. The two women are reported to have been taken
with the troops for two days and two nights, during which they are believed to have been
repeatedly raped and subsequently shot dead.
82. By letter dated 30 August 2001 sent jointly with the Special Rapporteur on torture, the
Special Rapporteur advised the Government that she had received information on the following
individual cases.
83. Nang Kya Non from Kaeng Lom village was reportedly gang-raped by SPDC soldiers
from LIB 246 on 27 and 28 September 1998, near her farm 2.5 miles from Kun-Hing town.
They reportedly took turns until daybreak and threatened to shoot her if she made any noise.
84. Nang Lam, a seven-month-pregnant woman, was reportedly beaten to death and her sister,
Nang Zu, beaten, raped and robbed by SPDC troops of LIB 22 at a farm three miles south of
Mark Mong Pawk village relocation site in Nam-Zarng township on 14 October 1998. Nang Zu
was allegedly transferred to hospital for treatment of her head wound. When she explained what
had happened, the medical personnel reportedly told her to say that her head was hit by a falling
branch. She is believed to have fled to Thailand two or three days later.
85. Pa Murng Awn, Pa Long, Naang Zaam, Naang Mo Khur and their husbands were
reportedly arrested by a patrol of SPDC troops from LIB 514 on 22 May 1999. They are
reported to have been detained in the lock-up of the military camp in Kae-See town, where
the women are believed to have been repeatedly raped for three consecutive nights by a
captain and three other officers. The eight were allegedly released only when their relatives
paid 10,000 kyat and they fled to Thailand on 11 June 1999.
86. Naang Noot was reportedly threatened with a gun and raped by an officer from LIB 227 of
the SPDC in Murng-Phyak on 18 September 1999, when she was fishing close to Wan Tap
village, Murng Nung tract, Murng-Khak township. Fearing reprisals, she reportedly did not
officially complain about the rape.
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87. Naang Mawn Zing, aged 17, and Naang Lam Poi, both schoolgirls from Lai-Kha, were
reportedly arrested by SPDC soldiers in early October 1999, when attending a school meeting
during which they asked about alleged human rights violations committed by soldiers. They
were reportedly taken to LIB 515 base, where they were raped for four days and nights. Their
parents were allegedly ordered to pay 15,000 kyat for the release of each of them.
88. Naang, a 16-year-old girl, was reportedly gang-raped at gunpoint by three SPDC soldiers
from LIB 279, including a sergeant, on 12 January 2000, on the bank of Nam Yarng stream near
Ter Laat village, in Murng-Yarng township.
89. Naang (Zang) and Naang (Nawt), aged 17, were reportedly raped on the banks of
Nam Yaang stream some distance from their village on 6 March 2000 by SPDC troops from
LIB 314 near Yaang Khum Mu village, Nawng Kwaang tract, Kaeng-Tung township.
90. Naang (Mya Tawng), a displaced Shan woman, was allegedly raped at gunpoint
on 29 March 2000 by the commander of Company No. 4 of the SPDC Kaeng-Tung-based
LIB 529, stationed at Naa Kawng Mu. The latter is also alleged to have threatened to imprison
the village leaders who wanted to complain about the rape.
91. Pa Wai, originally from Kun Pu village, Kun Pu tract, and Naang Thawn,
Naang Thun Nae and Naang Ing, aged 9, all from Naa Mawn village, Nawng Hai tract, were
allegedly raped by SPDC troops from LIB 246 based at Kun-Hing township. They were
reportedly arrested in late April 2000 and repeatedly raped for five days and four nights by the
soldiers.
Nigeria
92. On 7 November 2001, the Special Rapporteur sent an urgent appeal with the Special
Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions on behalf of Ms. Safiya Hussaini
Tungar-Tudu, a pregnant woman, who was sentenced to death by stoning by an Islamic Court
in Gwadabawa, in the northern Nigerian State of Sokoto. According to information received, she
was sentenced for having premarital sex. It is reported that she had until 8 November to appeal
the sentence and that the court’s ruling was to be reviewed by the State governor before a
punishment date was decided upon. Ms. Tungar-Tudu’s alleged sex partner was reportedly
acquitted by the same court because it lacked sufficient evidence to prosecute him for the alleged
sexual indiscretion.
93. On 11 January 2001, the Special Rapporteur sent a joint urgent appeal with the Special
Rapporteur on torture on behalf of Bariya Ibrahim Magazu, a 17-year-old girl, on behalf of
whom the Special Rapporteur on torture had already intervened on 29 September 2000. She was
reportedly sentenced to 180 strokes of the cane by a Shariah (Islamic Law) court in Tsafe,
Zamfara State, in early September 2000, allegedly for having had sexual relations outside
marriage and for having falsely accused three men of having sexual relations with her. The
sentence was not carried out at that time since she was due to give birth. It is believed that she
had the baby mid-December and that the sentence would be carried out on 27 January 2001.
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Philippines
94. By letter dated 30 September 2001 sent jointly with the Special Rapporteur on torture, the
Special Rapporteur advised the Government that she had received information according to
which women in the custody of law enforcement officials are particularly vulnerable to torture,
including rape and sexual abuse. Most of the victims are said to be members of socially
disadvantaged groups, including suspected prostitutes, street children, drug addicts and other
women considered to come from the lowest strata of society. It is reported that the police use
article 202 of the Revised Penal Code, “the anti-vagrancy law”, on a routine basis as a pretext to
arrest women arbitrarily, extort money or subject them to sexual violence. In 1997, the
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women criticized the discriminatory
application of this law, noting that it was enforced against female sex workers but not against
men involved as traffickers, pimps or clients. The alleged vague wording of this law is also
reported to leave it open to abuse by law enforcement officials.
95. Women are believed to be particularly vulnerable to rape between the time of arrest and
arrival at a police station. Following arrest, women detainees are reportedly taken to the local
police station for questioning, where they are allegedly held in a detention cell before being
charged. It is reported that, although according to Philippine regulations male and female
detainees are supposed to be segregated in police custody, women are held together with men in
many police stations. It is also alleged that police officers sometimes offer to release women or
to give them preferential treatment if they agree to have sex with them. This is said to occur
despite article 245 of the Revised Penal Code which forbids public officers from making sexual
advances towards female detainees. According to the information received, the Manila police
have also been criticized for their practice of employing “errand girls” to carry out menial tasks
in some police stations. In June 2000, the Philippine House Committee on Public Order and
Security reportedly called on police officers to stop this practice, citing an incident during which,
according to the Committee, a detained street girl had been raped at a police station in Luneta,
Manila. It is reported that, in most of the cases, victims of sexual abuse are reluctant to lodge a
complaint, fearing that this would entail their being subjected to further sexual violence by other
police officers. Furthermore, in a large number of cases, alleged victims are believed to refuse to
pursue a case, fearing reprisals against their families.
96. The Special Rapporteurs had been informed that under the Philippine law (Republic Act
No. 7659, known as the Death Penalty Law of 1993, and Republic Act No. 8353, known as the
Anti-Rape Law of 1997), law enforcement officials, including police and military officers, found
guilty of raping a woman in their custody face a mandatory death sentence. The Special
Rapporteurs were aware of four death sentences imposed on police officers following conviction.
It was also reported that, in two cases, police officers found guilty of the rape of a woman in
their custody had been given long prison terms. The Special Rapporteurs believed that, while it
was commendable that the perpetrators of such crimes be brought to justice, their sentences
should conform with internationally recognized human rights standards.
97. Medical reports in rape cases, where they exist, are reported to present irrelevant findings
and to employ non-medical terminology, such as “non-virgin state”. The Special Rapporteurs
recalled that lack of medical evidence of sexual penetration does not refute an allegation of
sexual abuse and that the complainant’s testimony must be impartially evaluated for consistency,
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credibility and coherence. In this context, the Special Rapporteurs referred to the Manual on the
Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading
Treatment or Punishment, the so-called Istanbul Protocol (recently published as Professional
Training Series No. 8 (HR/P/PT/8)), which states that “even on examination of the female
genitalia immediately after rape there is identifiable damage in less than 50 per cent of cases and
lesions in less than 30 per cent of cases of anal rape” (para. 220).
98. Lodging a complaint against a police officer or prison official requires courage and often
financial resources beyond the means of most victims. According to the information received, it
is not unusual for a victim of rape by law enforcement officials to be threatened or pressured by
the perpetrator into withdrawing her complaint. If the victim is from a disadvantaged social or
economic group, as is most often the case, her chances of obtaining justice are said to be bleak.
99. The Special Rapporteurs also received information on prison conditions. A number of
women are reported to have been victims of sexual abuses, including rape, by prison officials.
According to the information received, there have not been any successful prosecutions of prison
officials for rape. It is alleged that in certain prisons, female and male detainees are not held in
fully segregated areas, which is believed to lead to further abuses. Despite the fact that, in
accordance with international standards and the 1993 Manual of Standards and Policies issued by
the Philippine Bureau of Corrections, women detainees should be attended and supervised only
by women officers, it is reported that most of the prison guards and officials in women prisons
are men.
100. Material conditions in Philippine prisons are said to be poor and heavy overcrowding
seems to be one of the major problems. According to the information received, owing to a heavy
backlog in court cases, detainees - many unable to pay money as surety for bail - may wait years
for their trials to be concluded. The Special Rapporteurs had received reports of nutritional
deficiencies and inadequate medical facilities, including lack of medicines in prison infirmaries.
Women who become pregnant as a result of custodial rape are said to face an additional set of
traumas, such as lack of access to proper medical care or counselling. Abortion is said to be
prohibited. It is also reported that, during the rainy season, parts of some jails, like the Manila
City Jail, become badly flooded. Contaminated flood waters may carry various bacteria causing
diseases such as cholera, typhoid fever and other enteric infections to spread among the
detainees. Respiratory diseases such as tuberculosis are allegedly common, and according to the
information received, a number of inmates had been found to have contracted leptospirosis, a
potentially fatal disease carried by rats.
101. Finally, the Special Rapporteurs had been informed that at least 12 Muslim women had
been raped by military personnel in the provinces of Sultan Kudarat, Maguindanao and Lanao
del Sur in central and western Mindanao. It is believed that the number of victims of sexual
abuse by soldiers may be higher. However, women are said to be reluctant to report the rape to
the authorities, for fear of reprisals. No official investigations into these allegations are known to
have been ordered.
102. In particular, the Special Rapporteurs received information on the following individual
cases.
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103. A 17-year-old girl was reportedly arrested in February 1999 by Quezon City police
officers, along with two other women, on suspicion of involvement in a robbery. While in
detention at the women’s detention cell of a Quezon City police station, she was taken by a
police officer into a dark room, where she was allegedly raped. She is said to have been brought
back later that night to the same room, where she was sexually abused by a second man, believed
to be a radio reporter. On 12 February 1999 she was reportedly examined by a male police
doctor, who is said to have concluded that she was “in a non-virgin state” and that he could find
no external signs of trauma. The police officer allegedly admitted questioning her twice during
that night, but denied having raped her. An investigating prosecutor dismissed her complaint
against the accused police officer and radio reporter for lack of evidence. However, this decision
is said to have been subsequently overturned by the Chief Prosecutor, who recommended the
filing of criminal charges for rape and acts of lasciviousness. It is reported that the accused
persons were neither detained, nor charged. In May 1999 and again in June 1999 the girl and the
accused police officer were summoned to appear at separate hearings for grave misconduct
before the People’s Law Enforcement Board. It is not known whether these hearings took place.
As the girl was allegedly unable to pay bail of 100,000 pesos for her release, she was reportedly
transferred to Quezon City Jail, where she is thought to remain, awaiting trial in connection with
the robbery charge against her.
104. A 21-year-old woman suffering from mental illness is reported to have been raped by
three police officers in June 1999. She had been arrested allegedly for “loitering” in the vicinity
of the international airport, in Manila. It is reported that the police officers reportedly took her to
an unknown location instead of to the local police station and dumped her unconscious body
from a police patrol car,. The three police officers were subsequently suspended pending official
investigation, but it is not known whether they were facing criminal charges for rape.
105. A 17-year-old girl, detained at Dagupan City Jail on suspicion of involvement in a
homicide case, reportedly accused in January 2000 the former jail warden and 11 guards of
raping her. She was allegedly threatened with guns and forced to drink alcohol and to perform
oral sex. Her attempts to complain and requests for medical treatment were reportedly ignored
until she was eventually admitted to a clinic, complaining of severe pain in her genitals and
suffering from a sexually transmitted disease.
106. A 24-year-old woman was reportedly arrested by three police officers of the Western
Police District, in Malate, Manila, in September 2000. The officers reportedly released her
without charge, after forcing her to perform oral sex inside a police car, threatening her and
robbing her of a large amount of money which they ordered her to withdraw from her bank
account. The police officers, who were allegedly reassigned to new jobs after the incident, were
still at liberty several weeks later, despite the fact that they were said to be facing charges of rape
and robbery.
107. A 22-year-old woman detained at Antipolo City Jail was reportedly raped in
January 2000. She had allegedly been detained for a minor crime and was reported to have been
repeatedly abused and threatened by a police officer. In September 2000, she gave birth to a
baby, allegedly conceived as a result of the rape. In November 2000, the then Secretary of the
Interior and Local Government, Alfredo Lim, reportedly ordered an investigation against a
senior police officer accused of having repeatedly raped her.
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108. An 18-year-old woman was arrested late at night outside a store in Malate, Manila, in
April 2000 on suspicion of violating the anti-vagrancy law. It is reported that instead of being
taken to the local police station, she was brought to a private jeep, forced inside and raped at
gunpoint by two police officers and a third man. The three men were said to have been arrested
and detained for questioning while criminal and administrative charges were being prepared
against them.
109. A 38-year-old woman is reported to have filed a complaint with the Office of the
Ombudsman against the warden of Talavera District Jail, Province of Nueva Ecija. According to
the information received, she complained that the jail warden raped her four times in late 2000,
made her pregnant and then forced her to abort the child. He allegedly also threatened to kill
her.
Qatar
Follow-up to previously transmitted communications
110. By letter dated 23 July 2001, the Government responded to the Special Rapporteur’s
communication dated 23 October 2000 concerning the case of Mr. Arunda Nayanta Pandita
and Mrs. Saleha Saleem (see E/CN.4/2001/73/Add.1, paras. 43-44). The Government
indicated that Mr. Mohammed Ameerudeen Saleem (Indian) filed a complaint against
Mr. Arunda Nayanta Pandita (Sri Lankan) in which he alleged that the latter had seduced his
daughter, who was working as his subordinate, and had travelled with her from India to
Sri Lanka where he had married her in spite of their differing nationalities and religions (he
being Buddhist and she Muslim), all this being without the knowledge of her family. The
Government reported that since this constitutes a violation of the provisions of the Islamic
Shariah, which is applied in the State of Qatar, the court ordered their separation on the ground
that the marriage, being contrary to public order, was null and void. The official records show
that Mr. Arunda was held in preventive custody for a short time, was subsequently released on
bail and left Qatar for Sri Lanka before an appellate judgement was handed down in the case. He
was not sentenced to detention or any other penalty, the court having merely ordered the
couple’s separation.
111. According to information provided by the Government during the proceedings,
Mrs. Saleha claimed that she had married Mr. Arunda only after he promised her that he would
convert to Islam. The Government stated that Mr. Arunda’s assertion that he had been forced to
convert to Islam was false since, in his allegations, he did not identify the authority which forced
him to do so, nor did he provide any evidence to that effect. Moreover, the court did not make
the continuation of the marriage contract conditional on his conversion. Saleha was temporarily
prevented from leaving the country at the request of her father, in view of the fact that the case
was still being heard by the courts. The Government indicated that her passport had never been
taken away by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs or any other government authority. Mr. Arunda’s
relationship with Saleha ended when the judgement was handed down and, consequently, any
complaint to the effect that she was being held against her will should be made by her or by a
person with whom she has a legal relationship. The Government stated that the allegation that
Saleha was prevented from continuing her education and from finding employment was
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unrealistic, as the State did not deny foreign residents the right to study or seek employment.
Furthermore, Saleha was not denied access to communication, including e-mail. The
Government denied all the allegations.
112. The Government assured the Special Rapporteur that in its human rights agenda, the State
of Qatar accords priority to the question of violence against women, in keeping with the
established principles of the Islamic Shariah, under which it is prohibited to subject women to
any form of harm detrimental to their human dignity.
Republic of Moldova
113. On 30 January 2001, the Special Rapporteur sent an urgent appeal to both the
Governments of the Republic of Moldova and Turkey on behalf of Ms. Olga Torgonscaia,
aged 21 years, from Chisinau, the Republic of Moldova. According to information received,
Olga Torgonscaia was trafficked from the Republic of Moldova to northern Cyprus to work as a
prostitute. It is reported that, on 29 September 2000, one Michail (surname unknown), a
family member of one of Olga Torgonscaia’s friends, offered her work as a waitress in Italy,
which she accepted. He told her that she would have to go to Istanbul, in order to get an
Italian work permit from the Italian Embassy there. Michail allegedly took her to Kagul
(Moldova), where she was consigned to a woman who accompanied her to Istanbul by plane
on 30 September 2000. She lived there for some days, until she was told that it was
impossible to obtain an Italian visa but that nevertheless there was a similar job in Cyprus.
On 10 October 2000, she was reportedly taken to northern Cyprus. When she arrived she
realized that she had been cheated and was forced to work as a prostitute in a casino nightclub
called “Crazy Girls” situated in the Turkish sector of Lefkosha. Olga Torgonscaia is reportedly
not allowed to leave and may only call home occasionally and under strict surveillance. Serious
fears had been expressed concerning the health and life of Olga Torgonscaia if she was not freed
soon.
Observations
114. The Special Rapporteur has been informed that Olga Torgonscaia has been released.
Russian Federation
115. By letter dated 10 August 2001 sent jointly with the Special Rapporteur on torture,
the Special Rapporteur advised the Government that she had received information
concerning Zara Isaeva, from Chechnya, who was visiting Moscow for medical treatment
on 14 September 1999 when she was reportedly arrested at the home of her brother,
Zavlady Isaev, along with one of his friends, Musa Vagaev. During an interrogation at a police
station, she was allegedly stripped naked for an examination and threatened with being handed
over to homeless vagrants to be raped. She was reportedly released after a day in detention.
Zavlady Isaev and Musa Vagaev are believed to have been beaten and forced to sign a
confession relating to possession of drugs.
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116. By letters dated 28 October 2001 and 16 November 2001, the Government responded
to the Special Rapporteur’s letter. By letter dated 29 October 2001, the Government stated
that there had been no complaints from Mrs. Z. Isaeva, Mr. Z. Isaev or Mr. M. Vagev regarding
their alleged illegal treatment by law enforcement officials. By letter dated 16 November 2001,
the Government replied that inquiries had established that M. Vagaev had been detained
on 14 September 1999 by the Internal Affairs Department of the Moscow South-eastern
Administrative District for a drugs offence and for possession of weapons. On 14 April 2000,
he was sentenced by the Moscow Kuzminsk Inter-district Court to one year’s deprivation of
liberty and to a suspended sentence of six months’ imprisonment. Z.S. Isaeva was detained
on 14 September 1999 for petty hooliganism and released the same day after an administrative
report had been drawn up. In this connection, breaches of the law were committed by members
of the militia in that they completed certain administrative documents improperly. The decision
by the head of the “Zhulebino” Internal Affairs Directorate of the Internal Affairs Department
of the Moscow South-eastern Administrative District to fine Z.S. Isaev was appealed by the
Office of the Moscow Kuzminsk Inter-district Procurator. The appeal was upheld and the
fine paid by Z.S. Isaev was returned to him. Representations were made to the head of the
Internal Affairs Directorate for countenancing these breaches. Z.S. Isaev was detained at 11 p.m.
on 14 September 1999 for petty hooliganism. He was released at 3 a.m. on 15 September 1999
after an administrative report had been compiled. Allegations of violence used against
Z.S. Isaeva, Z.S. Isaev and M.M. Vagaev were found not to be substantiated by the Office of
the Moscow Kuzminsk Inter-district Procurator.
Sri Lanka
117. On 8 October 2001, the Special Rapporteur sent a joint urgent appeal with the Special
Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography on behalf of
Palanithami Sasikala (aged 17). According to information received, Palanithami Sasikala was
kidnapped on 28 September 1998 from her home in Pethalai Valaichenai by her uncle. He
allegedly took her to his house and then handed her over to an army officer attached to the
Kayankeney army camp, Valaichenai, Batticaloa. The officer then took her to his mother’s
house in Dambulla. Since then, she has reportedly been forced to work as an unpaid domestic
aide and has not been allowed to attend school. Once the family of Palanithami Sasikala
determined her whereabouts, they reportedly asked the officer to release her. However he did
not and reportedly threatened them. Fearing reprisals, the family did not file a complaint with
the authorities. At a later date, the officer was transferred to another post and, on 2 July 2001,
the family filed a complaint with the Kalumunai police, who asked the officer to report to the
station, which he did. However it is reported that Palanithami Sasikala was not released and,
although the family has filed another complaint, no action has yet been taken by the authorities.
118. By letter dated 20 December 2001, the Government of Sri Lanka informed the Special
Rapporteur about the case of Palanithambi Sasikaran. The Government reported that an
investigation had been initiated after a complaint was made to the Human Rights Commission of
Sri Lanka by Home for Human Rights on behalf of Ms. Palanithambi Sasikaran. According to
the investigations, Ms. Palanithambi Sasikaran was handed over to Mr. Opatha of the Sri Lanka
army by her grandfather when she was 12 years old and Rs. 1,000 per month was given to the
grandfather for about one and a half years. According to the Government, there was consensus
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that the child was not being kept by Mr. Opatha or his mother forcibly. Furthermore, the inquiry
did not show any evidence that the child was being kept forcibly and/or that Mr. Opatha took the
child using his authority as an officer of the army. The Government further stated that the only
issue, if any, to be examined would be the question of custody of the child.
119. By letter dated 30 August 2001 sent together with the Special Rapporteurs on extrajudicial,
summary or arbitrary executions and on torture, the Special Rapporteur advised the Government
that she had received information on the following individual cases.
120. Velauthapillai Rajani, a 22-year-old woman from Urumpirai North, was reportedly
arrested on 30 September 1996 in Kondavil-Urumpirai Road by the Sri Lankan army, dragged
into a house and raped. Her naked dead body was allegedly found later in the compound.
121. Ida Hamilitta, on behalf of whom the Special Rapporteur on violence against women had
already intervened, was reportedly killed by army personnel on 13 July 1999, in her home in
Pullimunai in Mannar district. Kesavan Rajah had reportedly been forced by army personnel to
bring them to Ida Hamilitta’s place and had been tied up and hit on the face upon arrival.
Soldiers allegedly raped Ida Hamilitta, stabbed her in the abdomen, shot at her genitals and killed
her. When, on the following day, Kesavan Rajah went to the Pallimunai police to lodge a
complaint, the police reportedly refused to record his statement and threatened him.
122. Krishnapillai Thayayothy was reportedly raped and killed by Home Guards operating
with the government forces, at Poomaraththadichenai, Muttur on 2 October 2000. She had
reportedly been abducted along with six other farmers, all of whom are said to have been brutally
murdered. Krishnapillai Thayayothy’s body was allegedly mutilated.
123. By letter dated 7 December 2001, the Government stated that initial investigations into the
case of Ida Carmaleeta (Ida Hamilitta) revealed that a group of army personnel had entered
the house of the deceased on the night of 12 July 1999 and had raped and killed her. On 20 July
1999, the Criminal Investigation Division (CID) arrested a corporal and a soldier of the
Sri Lanka army in relation with the rape and murder. Upon their arrest, they were produced
before the relevant magistrate and remanded. Investigations revealed the complicity of three
other army personnel in the commissioning of the crime. However, prior to being arrested,
on 13 December 1999, they surrendered to the Magistrates Court and were also remanded.
Another suspect surrendered to the court on 31 January 2000. On 20 July 1999, an identification
parade was held in the Magistrates Court of Mannar. The first two suspects were identified.
Criminal proceedings were instituted against the suspects for having committed the rape and
murder. On 8 August 2000, a non-summary inquiry commenced in the Magistrates Court of
Mannar. Subsequently, owing to the unsatisfactory nature of the security situation that
prevailed in Mannar, the Attorney-General transferred the case to Colombo. The Chief
Magistrates Court of Colombo assumed jurisdiction and the non-summary case recommenced
in that Court. On 3 July 2001, upon review of the available evidence and upon being satisfied
that there existed no evidence to proceed against the three suspects, the magistrate discharged
the said suspects from further proceedings. The Government reported that the two main suspects
remain accused, and the non-summary inquiry against them is continuing.
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124. By letter dated 30 August 2001 sent jointly with the Special Rapporteur on torture, the
Special Rapporteur advised the Government that she had received information on the following
individual cases.
125. Lakshmi Pillai was reportedly raped by two army informants in August 1995, at her
home, in Trincomalee, in front of her two sons, in revenge for having spoken about her previous
rape at Plaintain Point army post in August 1993. The informants were reportedly arrested but
later released on bail.
126. Sivasothy Krishnapillai, aged 31, was reportedly raped by three Special Task Force (STF)
personnel on 31 December 1996, in Mandoor, Batticaloa district. The inquiry into the case was
reportedly held at the Batticaloa district court on 30 November 1998.
127. A 17-year-old Tamil schoolgirl was reportedly severely beaten and raped by two Sinhala
soldiers at a secluded spot on 17 July 1997, when she was on her way to a school in Araly South.
She was allegedly admitted to Jaffna teaching hospital with severe injuries.
128. Sri Balakumar Ajanthana, a 17-year-old from Kandy Road, Ariyalai, in Jaffna town, was
reportedly raped by a police constable on 15 April 1998, resulting in heavy bleeding from the
vagina, and admitted to the Jaffna hospital at Kopay.
129. Rajeswary Krishnarajah, a 35-year-old widow was reportedly gang raped by soldiers on
29 September 1999 in her home, at Vaalaithottam in Varani in the Thenmaradchi Division of the
Jaffna Peninsula. Her brother and father were allegedly blindfolded. She was reportedly taken
to a nearby coconut plantation, where she was raped by two soldiers. She managed to escape
from a third soldier. On the following day, doctors at the Chavakachcheri hospital reportedly
confirmed that she had been raped.
130. A 13-year-old girl is said to have been gang raped on 14 December 1999 at her home in
Mawanella, east of Colombo on the Kandy Road, by a group of five police officers of the CID
and an army deserter. The group reportedly entered the house, threatened the parents at
gunpoint, took the girl to the kitchen and raped her. Only the army deserter has allegedly been
arrested in connection with the alleged assault.
131. By letter dated 18 December 2001 the Government replied regarding the cases of
the 17-year-old girl (Yoganadhan Dishalani) and Rajeshwari Krishnarajah. In regard to
the first case, the Government reported that inquiries had been made into the alleged incident,
reported to have occurred on 11 July 1997 in Aralay South in the Jaffna Peninsula, a soldier had
been arrested and a case filed against him. The case was transferred on 13 November 1997 from
the Jaffna Magistrates Court to the Mallakkam Magistrates Court. The next hearing was
scheduled to be held on 21 December 2001. The alleged perpetrator has reportedly been
demobilized from service pending completion of the court proceedings.
132. In regard to the case of Rajeshwari Krishnarajah, the Government reported that
on 29 September 1999, at around 11.30 p.m., three persons in army type uniforms entered her
house and raped her. The police submitted a report to the Magistrates Court on 6 October 1999,
however further action is pending as the rapist has not been identified.
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133. By letter dated 17 July 2001, sent jointly with the Special Rapporteur on torture, the
Special Rapporteur advised the Government that she had received information on the following
individual cases.
134. Wijikala Nanthan, a pregnant woman, and Simvamani Sinnathamby Weeralon were
reportedly arrested by the Mannar Police Counter Subversive Unit (CSU) under the Prevention
and Terrorism Act, at 11 p.m. on 13 March 2001. The CSU reportedly accused them of being
members of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). The two women were allegedly
raped repeatedly by CSU and Navy officers until they agreed to confess to possessing links with
the LTTE and to sign confessions, while still detained, on 17 March 2001. They were sentenced
to 14 days in judicial custody by Mannar district judge, during which time they were allegedly
repeatedly raped again.
135. A widowed mother of two was reportedly stopped on 23 June 2001 by police at a
checkpoint on the Borella Road, in Maradana. On 24 June, two policemen and a member of the
military attached to the checkpoint reportedly went to her home and said that she must go with
them to the Maradana police station. While en route to the police station, they reportedly
stopped at a bunker near the Maradana Borella checkpoint and raped her.
136. By letters dated 9 April and 21 December 2001, the Government responded in regard to the
cases of Sivamany Archunan and Wijikala Atunam. It stated that a special team of CID
officers from Colombo had taken over the case and commenced further criminal investigations.
By letter dated 21 December 2001, the Government reported that at the request of the CID a
series of identification parades had been held. Fourteen naval and police personnel had been
arrested by the CID, remanded and thereafter produced at identification parades. It stated that
criminal investigations had recently been concluded, and the investigative material forwarded to
the Attorney-General, enabling consideration of the institution of criminal proceedings.
137. By letter dated 7 December 2001, the Government responded in regard to the case of Velu
Harsha Devi. The Government reported that following the lodging of the complaint, on
24 July 2001, alleging that two police officers and two army soldiers had raped Ms. Velu Harsha
Devi at the Technicak College checkpoint in Maradana, located in the district of Colombo,
investigations had commenced and within 48 hours four suspects had been arrested and
remanded. At the identification parade on 6 July 2001 the complainant identified two of the
suspects, including a reserve police constable. The reserve police constable had since been
demobilized. Investigations had been concluded and the investigative material forwarded to the
Attorney-General, enabling consideration of criminal proceedings. The Attorney-General was
due to advise the Police to institute non-summary proceedings.
Follow-up to previously transmitted communications
138. By letter dated 30 January 2001, the Government responded to the communication sent on
14 March 2000 (E/CN.4/2001/73/Add.1, para.53 (c)) concerning the case of Pushpa Malar.
The Government stated that investigations in connection with the case had been conducted by
the Senior Superintendent of Jaffna with the assistance of the police stations in Jaffna,
Chavakachcheri, Kodikamam and Pallai. However, the criminal investigations had not yielded
positive results.
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Observations
139. The Special Rapporteur welcomes the establishment, by the Commander of the Sri Lanka
Army, of a directorate to deal with human rights issues. This directorate has been mandated to
implement the directives of the Commander of the Sri Lanka Army relating to human rights and
to oversee the implementation of human rights norms and standards, in line with domestic
constitutional and other legal provisions and those relating to international human rights law.
The new Directorate is administratively linked to the Directorate of Humanitarian Law,
established in 1997, and has been designated as the Directorate of Human Rights and
Humanitarian Law. However, despite this, the Special Rapporteur remains very concerned about
the situation. Sexual violence continues, as can be seen from the number of cases reported this
year. The Special Rapporteur would encourage the authorities to take all necessary measures to
prevent further cases from occurring.
Turkey
140. By letter dated 30 August 2001 sent jointly with the Special Rapporteur on torture, the
Special Rapporteur advised the Government that she had received information on the following
individual cases.
141. Fatma Tokmak, a woman of Kurdish origin, and her two-year-old son Azat were
reportedly detained by police officers in Istanbul on 9 December 1996 on suspicion that she and
her husband were members of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK). During their detention in
police custody at the Anti-Terror Department of the police headquarters in Istanbul, until
20 December 1996, they were reportedly tortured. In front of Fatma Tokmak’s eyes, Azat was
reportedly given electric shocks on the back and had cigarettes stubbed out on his hands, to elicit
confessions from his mother. Fatma Tokmak was reportedly violently undressed, forced to lie
on the floor while her son was put on top of her and told “Come on, fuck your mother”. She was
reportedly threatened with rape, including with a truncheon, several times hung by her arms and
sexually abused while in that position. She was threatened with her son’s death when police
took him away. On 20 December 1996, she was reportedly taken to the State Security Court in
Istanbul, which remanded her to prison in Gebze. With the help of her lawyer, her son was
reportedly found and returned to her mother some weeks later. A medical report by the Istanbul
Medical Chamber is said to corroborate her allegations. She reportedly filed a formal complaint
in 1997 against the police officers who allegedly tortured them. In July 1998, the public
prosecutor in Fatih reportedly decided not to initiate proceedings, a decision appealed by her
lawyers and rejected in June 2000. Fatma Tokmak is said to remain in Gebze prison charged
with PKK membership in a trial in which the death penalty is being sought. She is believed not
to have received a comprehensive medical examination.
142. Fahriye Bikin, Müyesser Günes, Sekernaz Cakal, Rahime Inci, Azize Yildiz, members
of the Peace Mothers Initiative, and their male interpreter, Murat Batgi, were reportedly
arrested by gendarmes at the Iraqi border on 4 October 2000 and interrogated at the border town
of Habur for nine hours. After a medical check, the women were reportedly taken blindfolded to
the Gendarmerie Headquarters in Silopi and interrogated again by gendarmes, who insulted
them, stripped them naked, sexually abused them, strangled them with their headscarves and hit
them on the back of their heads and necks. The gendarmes allegedly squeezed Azize Yildiz’s
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breasts, took nude photos of her and threatened to publish them. Rahime Inci and Sekernaz
Cakal were reportedly hit on their shoulders with a heavy object. Fahriye Bikin, who had
previously undergone a hip operation, was allegedly made to stand all night. On 7 October they
were reportedly brought before a prosecutor, who ignored their complaints of torture, and were
remanded to Mardin prison. Murat Batgi allegedly had his testicles squeezed, was beaten and
threatened. He was reportedly remanded to Silopi prison.
143. By letter dated 9 November 2001, the Government responded that Fatma Tokmak had
been taken into custody on 9 December 1996 in Istanbul along with eight persons. At the time of
her apprehension, she was with her child Azat Tokmak, who had been dispatched to the
Bahcelievler Nursery of the Social Services and Child Protection Agency on 12 December 1996
and had been returned to his mother by the petition of Fatma Tokmak’s lawyer on
28 February 1997. The Government indicated that it had been revealed that within her activities
in the PKK she had been involved in some murders and a pistol had been found at the house
where these persons had been apprehended. In accordance with the decision of the relevant
court, she was arrested and sent to prison on 20 December 1996. The trial is pending at Istanbul
State Security Court. As none of the medical reports indicate any ill-treatment against them, a
decision of non-prosecution was taken regarding the case against the police officers who were
alleged to have committed torture. The objection to this decision was later rejected by the
relevant court.
144. On 1 October 2001, the Special Rapporteur sent a joint urgent appeal with the Special
Rapporteur on torture on behalf of Asiye Güzel Zeybek, a journalist, who had been arrested by
the Turkish authorities in February 1997 and charged with membership of the Marxist-Leninist
Communist Party (MLCP), an “illegal organization” under article 168 of the Turkish Penal
Code. She reportedly filed a complaint against eight police officers, claiming that she had been
subjected to severe torture including repeated rape over a period of 13 days while she was being
held for interrogation at the Istanbul Security Headquarters. A first hearing of her complaint
against the eight police officers was reportedly held in November 1998; however, in
October 1999, the charges were rejected. It is reported that the court stated that there was
“no proof of guilt” against the police officers, in spite of the fact that evidence that she had
been raped was presented by members of the Medical Faculty at Istanbul University. In
December 2000, she was among hundreds of detainees who protested against their transfer from
the prison in Gebze to new detention centres. She reportedly suffered severe injuries as a result
of police action and these resulted in temporary paralysis. The initial trial proceedings against
Asiye Güzel Zeybek were reportedly commenced in February 2001, four years after her arrest.
On 21 September 2001, the proceedings were further adjourned until 7 December 2001.
145. On 18 April 2001 the Special Rapporteur sent a joint urgent appeal with the Special
Rapporteurs on the independence of judges and lawyers and on extrajudicial, summary or
arbitrary executions and the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on human rights
defenders on behalf of Ms. Eren Keskin, a prominent lawyer who is a leading member of the
Human Rights Association (IHD) and founder of the Legal Aid Project for women who have
been raped or sexually abused in custody. According to information received, Ms. Keskin had
been receiving threatening telephone calls on her mobile phone, at her law office and at the
office of the IHD, including threats that she would be raped or killed. Furthermore, on
9 April 2001, Ms. Keskin allegedly learned that a man arrested in Konya had confessed that he
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had intended to kill her. The harassment has allegedly taken place since Ms. Keskin visited
Silopi, in the south-eastern province of Sirnak, as a member of a delegation investigating the
disappearance of two members of a Kurdish political party.
146. By letters dated 5 and 13 June 2001, the Government responded regarding the case of
Eren Keskin. The Government stated that Mr. Hüseyin Calik was taken into custody on
25 April 2000. He confessed that he had been planning to murder Eren Keskin and that he had
gone to Istanbul in March 1999 in possession of a pistol. He said that he had gone to the office
of Eren Keskin, but could not achieve his goal due to the crowd in the office. Upon the
completion of the investigation, Hüseyin Calik was arrested. The Government indicated that
Ms. Keskin had not requested the security forces to provide her with personal protection. She
asked for a police patrol in the neighbourhood of the Istanbul branch of the IHD. The
Government indicated that, upon that request, the necessary measures had been taken by the
security forces.
147. On 30 January 2001, the Special Rapporteur sent an urgent appeal to both Turkey and the
Republic of Moldova on behalf of Ms. Olga Torgonscaia, aged 21 years, from Chisinau, the
Republic of Moldova. According to information received, Olga Torgonscaia was trafficked
from the Republic of Moldova to northern Cyprus to work as a prostitute. It is reported that,
on 29 September 2000 one Michail (surname unknown), a family member of one of
Olga Torgonscaia’s friends, offered her work as a waitress in Italy, which she accepted. He told
her that she would have to go to Istanbul, in order to get an Italian work permit from the Italian
Embassy there. Michail allegedly took her to Kagul (Moldova), where she was consigned to a
woman who accompanied her to Istanbul by plane on 30 September 2000. She lived there for
some days, until she was told that it was impossible to obtain an Italian visa but that nevertheless
there was a similar job in Cyprus. On 10 October 2000 she was reportedly taken to northern
Cyprus. When she arrived, she realized that she had been cheated and was forced to work as a
prostitute in a casino nightclub called “Crazy Girls” situated in the Turkish sector of Lefkosha.
Olga Torgonscaia was reportedly not allowed to leave and could only call home occasionally and
under strict surveillance. Serious fears had been expressed concerning the health and life of
Olga Torgonscaia if she was not freed soon.
Observations
148. The Special Rapporteur has been informed that Olga Torgonscaia has been released.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Follow-up to previously transmitted communications
149. By letter dated 17 May 2001, the Government responded to the Special Rapporteur’s
communication regarding the prison system in Bermuda, one of the United Kingdom overseas
territories (E/CN.4/2000/68/Add.1, paras.27-30) stated that responsibility for the prison service
was devolved to the Government of Bermuda. Recognizing that Bermuda faced some challenges
with the administration and management of the Prison Service (including the Co-Educational
Facility catering separately for female and juvenile inmates), the Government of Bermuda
commissioned an enquiry into the state of prisons in July 1999. The review was carried out by
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Mr. C.P. Gibbard, a governor in Her Majesty’s Service Prison Service and Prison Reform
Coordinator for the United Kingdom Overseas territories. The report includes a series of
recommendations, which are the subject of ongoing action. However the report does not refer
specifically to any fundamental and serious problems with the treatment of female prisoners.
The Government of Bermuda states that it is confident that there is nothing untoward in the
treatment of female prisoners in Bermuda. The Government responded that the Home Affairs
Minister, Paula Cox, following the investigation into the case of Ms. Miah Lewis, announced in
June 1999 that she had ordered “an extra layer of protection to be introduced” to ensure gender
segregation in Bermuda’s Co-Educational Facility. The Government stated that male prison
officers could not be present in the Women’s Section without the presence of a female officer
and male officers did not have access to the keys for the Women’s Section.
Uzbekistan
150. By letter dated 10 August 2001 sent jointly with the Special Rapporteur on torture, the
Special Rapporteur advised the Government that she had received information on the following
individual case.
151. Nadira Khidoiatova, the niece of Uzbekistan’s former ambassador of Uzbekistan to the
United States, and Asia Turaniyazova, who were three and sixth months’ pregnant respectively,
were reportedly arrested by police in July 1995 and subsequently taken to the cells of the
National Security Service, where they were forced to undergo abortions. They were allegedly
forced to abort because Uzbekistan law is said to require that pregnant women be released
pending trial.
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Apéndice
FORMULARIO CONFIDENCIAL DE DENUNCIA DE
ACTOS DE VIOLENCIA CONTRA LA MUJER
INFORMANTE. El nombre y la dirección de la persona u organización que facilita la
información tendrán carácter confidencial. Se ruega que se indique si es posible establecer
contacto con el informante para obtener información adicional y, en caso afirmativo, por qué
medios.
Nombre de la persona u organización: ______________________________________________
Dirección: ____________________________________________________________________
Fax/teléfono./correo electrónico: __________________________________________________
VÍCTIMA(S). Información acerca de la(s) víctima(s): nombre completo, edad, sexo, domicilio,
profesión y otras actividades relacionadas con la supuesta agresión, y cualquier otro dato que
permita identificar a la persona (como el número del pasaporte o del documento de identidad).
Sírvase indicar si la víctima está dispuesta a que su caso se comunique al gobierno interesado.
Nombre: _____________________________________________________________________
Dirección: ____________________________________________________________________
Fecha de nacimiento: ___________________________________________________________
Nacionalidad: _________________________________________________________________
Sexo: ________________________________________________________________________
Ocupación: ___________________________________________________________________
Grupo étnico, religión, grupo social (si sonde interés): _________________________________
INCIDENTE. Indíquense las fechas, el lugar, y el daño sufrido o que deba evitarse. Si la
comunicación se refiere a una ley o política y no a un incidente concreto, resuma la ley o política
y los efectos de su aplicación sobre los derechos humanos de la mujer.
Incluya la información que para los presuntos agresores, particularmente sus nombres y la
relación que puedan tener con las víctimas o con el gobierno, así como una explicación de las
razones por las que los considera agresores. Si se presenta información sobre violaciones de
derechos cometidas por individuos o grupos privados (y no por funcionarios públicos), incluya
cualquier información que indique que el gobierno no ha actuado con la debida diligencia para
evitar, investigar y castigar la agresión y para dar reparación a las víctimas. Diga qué pasos han
dado las víctimas o sus familias para conseguir reparación, particularmente las denuncias
presentadas a la policía y otras autoridades o a instituciones nacionales independientes de
defensa de los derechos humanos. Si no se han presentado denuncias, explique la razón de que
no se haya hecho. Indique las medidas tomadas por las autoridades para investigar la presunta
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agresión (o amenaza de agresión) y evitar la comisión de actos similares en el futuro. Si se ha
presentado una denuncia, diga qué medidas han tomado las autoridades, en qué situación se
encuentra la investigación en el momento de presentar esta comunicación y si los resultados de la
investigación no son adecuados, así como la razón de ello.
Fecha: _________ Hora: _________ Lugar/país: _________________________________
Número de agresores: ______ ¿Conoce la víctima a su(s) agresor(es)? __________________
Nombre del agresor o agresores: __________________________________________________
¿Tiene la víctima alguna relación con el agresor o agresores? En caso afirmativo ¿cuál es la
naturaleza de esa relación? _______________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
Descripción del agresor o los agresores (describa las características que permita la
identificación): ________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
Descripción del incidente: _______________________________________________________
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¿Cree la víctima que fue agredida concretamente por ser mujer? _________________________
En caso afirmativo ¿por qué? _____________________________________________________
¿Se ha comunicado el incidente a las autoridades competentes del Estado? _________________
En caso afirmativo ¿a cuáles y cuándo? _____________________________________________
¿Han tomado las autoridades alguna medida después del incidente? ______________________
De ser así, ¿qué autoridades? _____________________________________________________
¿Qué medidas? ________________________________________________________________
¿Cuándo? ____________________________________________________________________
TESTIGOS. ¿Hubo algún testigo? _____________
Nombre/edad/relación con la víctima/dirección: ______________________________________
Le rogamos que comunique a la Relatora Especial cualquier información que llegue a su
conocimiento después de presentar este formulario; por ejemplo, la Relatora Especial
agradecería que se le comunicara si el problema de derechos humanos ha sido adecuadamente
resuelto, si se ha llegado a una conclusión definitiva en una investigación o juicio, o si se ha
llevado a cabo un acto planeado o se ha cumplido una amenaza.
SÍRVASE ENVIAR ESTE FORMULARIO A:
La Relatora Especial sobre la violencia contra la mujer,
Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas
para los Derechos Humanos, 1211 Genève 10, Suiza
(Fax: (41) 22 917 90 06, correo electrónico: csaunders.hchr@unog.ch)
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