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The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Article 151 [Military Training]

In accordance with the noble Koranic verse: "Prepare against them whatever force you are able to muster, and horses ready for battle, striking fear into God's enemy and your enemy, and others beyond them unknown to you but known to God..." [8:60], the government is obliged to provide a program of military training, with all requisite facilities, for all its citizens, in accordance with the Islamic criteria, in such a way that all citizens will always be able to engage in the armed defense of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The possession of arms, however, requires the granting of permission by the competent authorities.

Chapter X Foreign Policy

Article 152 [Principles]

The foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran is based upon the rejection of all forms of domination, both the exertion of it and submission to it, the preservation of the independence of the country in all respects and its territorial integrity, the defense of the rights of all Muslims, nonalignment with respect to the hegemonist superpowers, and the maintenance of mutually peaceful relations with all non-belligerent States.

Article 153 [No Foreign Control]

Any form of agreement resulting in foreign control over the natural resources, economy, army, or culture of the country, as well as other aspects of the national life, is forbidden.

Article 154 [Independence, Support of Just Struggles]

The Islamic Republic of Iran has as its ideal human felicity throughout human society, and considers the attainment of independence, freedom, and rule of justice and truth to be the right of all people of the world. Accordingly, while scrupulously refraining from all forms of interference in the internal affairs of other nations, it supports the just struggles of the freedom fighters against the oppressors in every corner of the globe.

Article 155 [Asylum]

The government of the Islamic Republic of Iran may grant political asylum to those who seek it unless they are regarded as traitors and saboteurs according to the laws of Iran.

Chapter XI the Judiciary

Article 156 [Status, Functions]

The judiciary is an independent power, the protector of the rights of the individual and society, responsible for the implementation of justice, and entrusted with the following duties:

1) Investigating and passing judgment on grievances, violations of rights, and complaints; the resolution of litigation; the settling of disputes; and the taking of all necessary decisions and measures in probate matters as the law may determine;

2) Restoring public rights and promoting justice and legitimate freedoms;

3) Supervising the proper enforcement of laws;

4) Uncovering crimes; prosecuting, punishing, and chastising criminals; and enacting the penalties and provisions of the Islamic penal code; and

5) Taking suitable measures to prevent the occurrence of crime and to reform criminals.

Article 157 [Head of Judiciary]

In order to fulfill the responsibilities of the judiciary power in all the matters concerning judiciary, administrative and executive areas, the Leader shall appoint a just honorable man well versed in judiciary affairs and possessing prudence and administrative abilities as the head of the judiciary power for a period of five years who shall be the highest judicial authority.

Article 158 [Functions of the Head of Judiciary]

The Head of Judiciary is responsible for the following:

1) Establishment of structure necessary for the justice commensurate with mentioned under Article 156.

2) Drafting judiciary bills appropriate for the Islamic Republic.

3) Employment of just and worthy judges, their dismissal, appointment, transfer, assignment to particular duties, promotions, and carrying out similar administrative duties, in accordance with the law.

Article 159 [Courts]

The courts of justice are the official bodies to which all grievances and complaints are to be referred. The formation of courts and their jurisdiction is to be determined by law.

Article 160 [Minister of Justice]

(1) The Minister of Justice owes responsibility in all matters concerning the relationship between the judiciary on the one hand and the executive and legislative branches on the other hand. He will be elected from among the individuals proposed to the President by the head of the judiciary branch.

(2) The head of the judiciary may delegate full authority to the Minister of Justice in financial and administrative areas and for employment of personnel other than judges in which case the Minister of Justice shall have the same authority and responsibility as those possessed by the other Ministers in their capacity as the highest ranking government executives.

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