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Silencing the Women's Rights Movement in Iran

The ICCPR also contains prohibitions against detaining "unconvicted persons" with "convicted persons."" 323 In 2003, the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention visited Iran and expressed concern about Iran 's use of solitary confinement." 324 The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression, Ambeyi Ligabo, explained that, in addition to facilitating torture, "prolonged incommunicado detention … could itself constitute a form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or even torture"" 325

The Iranian authorities mistreated and tortured women's rights activists in violation of Iran 's laws and its international obligations. Many activists were verbally abused and suffered from unsanitary and overcrowded prison conditions.326 Others, including Shiva Nazar Ahari and Hengameh Shahidi, endured months of solitary confinement." 327 At least one, Tania Ahmadi Kaliji was severely beaten and possibly raped.328

The authorities also housed political prisoners with regular female prisoners, including murderers, drug addicts and thieves.329 Former Evin Ward 209 prisoner Parisa Kakaee recalls:

A week after my release, they mixed the political prisoners into the general ward and emptied the methadone ward. I heard that this situation was awful and that the place was really dirty. In the general wards, rape and such acts are very frequent.330

4.4 Use of Bail as Punishment

Article 132 of the Iranian Code of Criminal Procedure stipulates that "in order to have access to the accused, ensure his timely presence when necessary, prevent his escape or his hiding or conspiring with another,"

[323] ICCPR supra note 273, art. 10(2).
[324] "Solitary confinement covers the generalized use of ‘incommunicado' imprisonment. The Working Group, for the first time since its establishment, has been confronted with a strategy of widespread use of solitary confinement for its own sake and not for traditional disciplinary purposes, as the Group noted during its truncated visit to sector 209 of Evin prison. This is not a matter of a few punishment cells, as exist in all prisons, but what is a ‘prison within a prison,' fitted out for the systematic, large-scale use of absolute solitary confinement, frequently for very long periods." U.N. Econ. & Soc. Council [ECOSOC], Sub-Comm. on Human Rights, Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Addendum: Visit to the Islamic Republic of Iran, ¶ 54, U.N. E/CN.4/2004/3/Add.2 (June 27, 2003), available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/aadel.htm.
[325] UN Commission on Human Rights, Report submitted by the Special Rapporteur on the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Ambeyi Ligabo: Addendum Mission to the Islamic Republic of Iran, at 3, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/2004/62/Add.2 (Jan. 12, 2004), available at http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,,MISSION,IRN,,4090ffed0,0.html (last visited Apr. 21, 2009) [hereinafter Ligabo Report].
[326] See supra notes 147, 160, 169, 190, 205, 239, 244, 246, 249, 251-53, 258-59 and accompanying text (Parisa Kakaee, Shiva Nazar Ahari, Hengameh Shahidi, Shadi Sadr, Tania Ahmadi Kaliji, Narges Mohammadi).
[327] See supra notes 160, 246, 255 and accompanying text (Shiva Nazar Ahari, Tania Ahmadi Kaliji, Hengameh Shahidi).
[328] See supra note 249 and accompanying text.
[329] Hengameh Shahidi Attacked in Prison, Kaleme, May 30, 2010, English translation of the news report available at: http://persian2english.com/?p=11279.
[330] IHRDC Interview with Parisa Kakaee (April 14, 2010) (on file with IHRDC). Hengameh Shahidi, a journalist and member of the One Million Signatures Campaign, was also reportedly attacked by a drug addict in the female ward of Evin Prison on the morning of May 29, 2010. Hengameh Shahidi Attacked in Prison, Kaleme, May 30, 2010, English translation of the news report available at http://persian2english.com/?p=11279.

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Sexual Violence, Gender Rights, Death Penalty, Political Killings, Executions, Torture, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment, Punishment, Personal Liberty, Arbitrary Detention, Travel Restrictions, Due Process, Right to an Attorney, Illegal Search and Seizure, Free Speech, Right to Protest, Protests, Free Association, Child Rights, Political Freedom, Equality Before the Law, Discrimination