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Silencing the Women's Rights Movement in Iran

rights activists include that of Mahdiyeh Golrou whose bail was initially set at roughly $70,000 in April 2010 and later reduced to $50,000.337 Unfortunately, her family could not afford either amount.338 Khadijeh Moghaddam's bail was set at roughly $10,000 on April 14, 2010, but again, such sums were not available to her family.339

4.5 Official Harassment

The Iranian Constitution considers "[t]he dignity, life, property, rights, residence, and occupation of the individual inviolate except in cases sanctioned by law."" 340 International law also recognizes the right to privacy, the right to not be deprived of work unfairly and the right to freedom of movement." 341 However, the Iranian authorities constantly monitored women's rights activists, and denied their rights to be employed and travel.

4.5.1 Right to Privacy

The Iranian Constitution prohibits arbitrary surveillance and all forms of covert investigation except for specific circumstances specified by law." 342 Similarly, Article 17 of the ICCPR states that:

1. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honor and reputation.

2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Women's rights activists report constant and oppressive surveillance." 343 Government agents followed them, tapped their phones, and monitored their email.344 Interrogators regularly called and threatened activists and their families with consequences if they failed to cease their activities or report to law enforcement." 345 On account of the surveillance and harrassment, some activists stopped using their mobile phones altogether, and cut off communication with colleagues and friends.346 The threats and harassment left many activists feeling isolated and hopeless.347

[337] Mahdiyeh Golrou Hamchinan dar Zindan bih Dalil-i Vasiqiyih 700 Million Tomani [Mahdiyeh Golrou Remains in Prison Due to 700 Million Toman Bail], Daneshjoo News, April 25, 2010, available at http://www.daneshjoonews.com/news/humanrights/605-1389-02-05-00-19-16.html.
[338] Mahdiyeh Golrou Hamchinan dar Zindan bih Dalil-i Vasiqiyih 700 Million Tomani [Mahdiyeh Golrou Remains in Prison Due to 700 Million Toman Bail], Daneshjoo News, April 25, 2010, available at http://www.daneshjoonews.com/news/humanrights/605-1389-02-05-00-19-16.html.
[339] Akharin Vazi'yat-i Khadijeh Moghaddam az Aza'i Campaign-i Yik Million Imza [Latest News About Khadijeh Moghaddam, Member of the One Million Signature Campaign], The Feminist School, April 13, 2008, available at http://www.iranfemschool.org/spip.php?article436.
[340] Iranian Const. supra note 268, art. 22.
[341] ICCPR supra note 273, arts. 17 and 12. International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, art. 6, January 3, 1976, 993 U.N.T.S. 3 [hereinafter ICESCR] available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/aadel.htm.
[342] Article 25 states: "The inspection of letters and the failure to deliver them, the recording and disclosure of telephone conversations, the disclosure of telegraphic and telex communications, censorship, or the willful failure to transmit them, eavesdropping, and all forms of covert investigation are forbidden, except as provided by law." Iranian Const. supra note 268, art. 25.
[343] See IHRDC Interview with Aida Saadat (April 15, 2010) (on file with IHRDC); IHRDC Interview with Mahboubeh Abbasgholizadeh (July 6, 2010) (on file with IHRDC); IHRDC Interview with Parisa Kakaee (April 14, 2010) (on file with IHRDC); IHRDC Interview with Tania Ahmadi Kaliji (April 19, 2010) (on file with IHRDC).
[344] See supra notes 164, 183, 248, 251 and accompanying text (Mahboubeh Abbasgholizadeh, Aida Saadat, Tania Ahmadi Kaliji, Parisa Kakaee).
[345] See supra notes 171, 182-84, 188, 248 and accompanying text (Tania Ahmadi Kaliji, Parisa Kakaee, Aida Saadat).
[346] See supra notes 164, 169, 194 and accompanying text (Parisa Kakaee, Mahboubeh Abbasgholizadeh, Tania Ahmadi Kaliji, Parvin Ardalan).
[347] See supra notes 164, 168, 184, 194 and accompanying text (Parisa Kakaee, Mahboubeh Abbasgholizadeh, Aida Saadat, Jila Bani Yaghoub).

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Sexual Violence, Gender Rights, Death Penalty, Political Killings, Executions, Torture, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment, Punishment, Personal Liberty, Arbitrary Detention, Travel Restrictions, Due Process, Right to an Attorney, Illegal Search and Seizure, Free Speech, Right to Protest, Protests, Free Association, Child Rights, Political Freedom, Equality Before the Law, Discrimination