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Violent Aftermath: The 2009 Election and Suppression of Dissent in Iran

Conclusion

As this report goes to press, the cycle of arrests, detention, forced confessions, trials and sentencing continues in Iran. Following the demonstrations on Ashura, hundreds of demonstrators and activists were arrested in the streets or at their homes. Many had been recently released but were rearrested by the regime in another attempt to violently crush the opposition movement. IHRDC will continue to document these violations of Iranian and international law.

IHRDC wishes to thank the witnesses, many of whom have suffered unspeakable treatment in the hands of the Iranian regime, for their willingness to recount their experiences. The Center also wishes to thank students of the Human Rights Clinic of the University of Toronto Law School for their invaluable research assistance.



[1] Council: Iran Election Turnout at 85%, Press TV, June 13, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=97990.

[2] The Guardian Council is a twelve-member council that is granted extensive powers under the Constitution of Iran. The Council determines whether laws and regulations meet Islamic criteria and are constitutional. Six of its members are appointed directly by the Supreme Leader. Six others are appointed by the Majlis from among jurists nominated by the head of the Judiciary who himself is appointed by the Supreme Leader. See Qanun-i Assasiyih Jumhuriyih Islamiyih Iran [Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran] 1358 [adopted 1979, amended 1989] arts. 4 and 91-99 [hereinafter Iranian Const.].

[3] Id. art. 113.

[4] Id. arts. 124, 126, 127, and 133.

[5] Id. art. 176.

[6] Id. art. 115.

[7] Article 99 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran states: “The Guardian Council has the responsibility of supervising the elections of the Assembly of Experts for Leadership, the President of the Republic, the Islamic Consultative Assembly, and the direct recourse to popular opinion and referenda.”

[8] Mehdi Moslem, Factional Politics In Post-Khomeini Iran 181 (2002).

[9] Reza Afshari, Human Rights in Iran: The Abuse of Cultural Relativism 206 (2001).

[10] Moslem, supra note 8, at 181 (citing Khamenei).

[11] Mehrangiz Kar, Constitutional Obstacles to the Realizations of Human Rights and Democracy in Iran, 73 (unpublished manuscript, on file with Scholars at Risk and Iran Human Rights Documentation Center) [hereinafter Constitutional Obstacles]; Iranian Const., supra note 2, art. 99; Afshari, supra note 9, at 239.

[12] Moslem, supra note 8, at 234; Qanun-i Intikhabat-i Riyasat-i Jumhuri [Presidential Election Law] 1364 (1985), art. 8.

[13] Constitutional Obstacles, supra note 11, at 73.

[14] See also Afshari, supra note 9, at 237.

[15] Id. at 237.

[16] Id. at 239.

[17] Rafsanjani was president of the Islamic Republic of Iran between 1989 and 1997, prior to which he was the speaker of the Majlis. His presidency was marked by encounters with opposition groups inside and outside of the country including extra judicial killings of many opposition leaders in Europe and throughout Middle East. Along with some of his ministers, Rafsanjani has been implicated in the 1994 bombing of the Jewish cultural center in Buenos Aires. See generally Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, No Safe Haven: Iran’s Global Assassination Campaign, (May 2008), available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/reports.htm. See also Zindiginamih, Aba’d-i Ilmi va Siyasi [Biography, Science and Political Aspects], Website of Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani, available at http://www.hashemirafsanjani.ir/?type=static&lang=1&id =7.

[18] See Darbarihyih Jami’yih Rawhaniyat-i Mubariz [About Society of Combating Clerics], Rohaniat Mobarez, available at http://www.rohaniatmobarez.com/Portal/Home/ShowPage.aspx?Object=Paper&LayoutID=7c9956bd-93dd-4453-b4fa-4cac96c389c7&ID=48bb9d3a-fddb-48c6-b8fd-554013fdbfaa; Rawhaniyat-i Mubriz va Hidayat-i Fikr-i-Siyasiyih Millat-i Iran dar Inqilab-i Islami [Society of Combatant Clerics and the Political – Ideological Guidance of Iranian Nation during the Revolution], Rasekhoon, available at http://www.rasekhoon.net/Article/Print-30699.aspx; A’za [Members], Majma Rouhanioon Mubariz, available at http://rouhanioon.com/; Tarikhchihyih Ta’sis-i Hizb [History of Founding of the Party], Etemad Melli, available at http://www.etemadmelli.org/?xid=0005020002002100000. 

[19] Fear and allegations of fraud in elections are not new in the Islamic Republic. In 1997, following the presidency of Hashemi Rafsanjani, presidential elections became more contestable, and suspicions of election rigging entered the public dialog. These rumors led in turn to low voter participation and were publically addressed by then-president Rafsanjani: “The administrators of the election procedure must act in a way so that the minds of people will be at ease. … The results [of the election] are the people’s will, even though there may be people who might want to change the votes to get their candidates elected. This action would undermine the faith of the people in the system.” The Supreme Leader announced that he would not allow illegal tampering with the vote. Moslem, supra note 8, at 250. Allegations of fraud were again raised after the 2005 presidential elections when Mahdi Karroubi led in the initial results but failed to qualify for the runoff which took place between Rafsanjani and Ahmadinejad. In a letter to the Supreme Leader, Karroubi claimed that the Guardian Council, in collusion with the Sepah, worked to create the election results that they desired. Mohammad Sahimi, The Sheikh of Reform, Tehran Bureau, available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/tehranbureau/2009/10/the-sheikh-of-the-reforms-mehdi-karroubi.html.

[20] The “moral police” in Iran patrol streets and enforce religious modesty such as the proper wearing of the hijab.

[21] The color green was initially suggested to Mousavi by one of his advisors and later endorsed by Khatami to become the color of his campaign. See Ramz Gusha-i az Rang-i Sabz-i Mousavi [Cracking the Code of Mousavi’s Green Color], Ravayat, Dec. 21, 2009, available at http://ravayat.ir/shownews.asp?c=0&id=7130.

[22] IHRDC interview with S.R. (Aug. 29, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[23] Shu’ar-i Mardum Pas az Munazirih dar Khiyabanha, Rayih Ma Nukhust Vazir-i Imam [People Chant in the Streets After the Debate: Our vote is Imam’s Prime Minister], Entekhab News, June 4, 2009, available at http://www.tikonline.org/portal/ index.php?news=5637 (last visited on Oct. 13, 2009).

[24] IHRDC interview with S.R. (Aug. 29, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[25] Hushdar-i Kumitihyih Siyanat az Ara Nisbat bih Takhalufat-i Intikhabat-i [Warning of the Committee for Protection of the Votes regarding Irregularities in the Election], BBC Persian, June 9, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/06/090609_bd_election_fraud_letter.shtml.

[26] Id.  

[27] Amnesty International, Iran: Worsening Repression of Dissent as Election Approaches, AI Index MDE 13/012/2009, February 2009, available at http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE13/012/2009/en/6355979b-f779-11dd-8fd7-f57af21896e1/mde1 30122009en.html.

[28] Ali Akbar Dareini, Iran Reformists Hope for High Election Turnout, The Associated Press, May 22, 2009, available at http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=7656826.

[29] Thomas Erdbrink, Iran’s Vote Ends in Confusion, Confrontation, Washington Post, June 13, 2009, available at http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article/article?f=/c/a/2009/06/12/MNSR186K08.DTL [hereinafter Confusion and Confrontation].

[30] Natayij-i Naha’i’yih Dahumin Dawrihyih Intikhabat-i Riyasat-i Jumhuri [Final Results of the Tenth Presidential Election], Islamic Republic of Iran’s Ministry of Interior Portal, June 14, 2009, available at http://moi.ir/Portal/Home/ShowPage.aspx?Object=News&CategoryID=832a711b-95fe-4505-8aa3-38f5e17309c9&LayoutID=dd8faff4-f71b-4c65-9aef-a1b6d0160be3&ID=5e30ab89-e376-434b-813f-8c22255158e1; 32 million votes cast in elections, Press TV, June 12, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=97958.

[31] Seyyed Ali Khamenei, President Elect Is President of All Iranians, The Office of the Supreme Leader Seyyed Ali Khamenei, June 13, 2009 available at http://www.leader.ir/langs/EN/index.php?p=contentShow&id=5566; Iran Election: What Iranian Newspapers Say, The Atlantic, June 15. 2009, available at http://politics.theatlantic.com/2009/06/iran_election_what_iranian_newspapers_say.php.

[32] Latest Results: Landslide Win for Ahmadinejad, Press TV, June 13, 2009 available at http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=97967.

[33] Id.

[34] Robert F. Worth and Nazila Fathi, Protests Flare in Tehran as Opposition Disputes Vote, New York Times, June 14, 2009 available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/14/world/middleeast/14iran.html?_r=1 [hereinafter Protests Flare].  

[35] Ahmadinejad Leads Mousavi in Preliminary Results, Press TV, June 12, 2009 available at http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=97953.

[36] Confusion and Confrontation, supra note 36; Sit-i Sitad-i Mousavi az Barkhurd-i Police ba Havadaran Khabar Dad [Mousavi’s Campaign Website Reported on the Clash of the Police and the Supporters], BBC Persian, June 13, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/06/090612_bd_ir88_mousavi_supporters.shtml. A spokesperson claimed that Mousavi was told by military personnel that his victory could not stand. Video File: European Parliament against Ahmadinejad, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m7fiBxU8wEU.

[37] Confusion and Confrontation, supra note 36. On election days, the authorities allow no gatherings or campaigning under article 66 of the Presidential Election Law.

[38] IHRDC interview with Maryam Amoozegar. (November 10, 2009) (on file with IHRDC); Iran: Basij Member Describes Election Abuse, Channel 4 News, Dec. 16, 2009, available at http://www.channel4.com/news/articles/world/middle_east/iran+basij+member+describes+election+abuse/3466142 [hereinafter Basij Interview].

[39] According to a former commander of the Basij, Brigadier General Mohammad Hejazi, the strength of the force in 2004 was 10.3 million. By 2007, its strength stood at 12.6 million. On November 25, 2008, Taeb told the semi-official Fars news agency that the force numbered 13.6 million, which is about 20 percent of the total population of Iran. Of this number, about 5 million are women and 4.7 million are schoolchildren. Iran’s Basij Force–the Mainstay of Domestic Security, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Dec. 8, 2008, available at http://www.rferl.org/content/Irans_Basij_Force_Mainstay_Of_Domestic_ Security/1357081.html.

[40] Middle-school-aged members of the Student Basij are called Seekers (Puyandegan), and high-school members are called the Vanguard (Pishgaman). Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij, Mobilization Resistance Force, GlobalSecurity.org, undated, available at http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/world/iran/Basij.htm.

[41] Sarlashgar Jafari: Mas’uliyat-i Asliyih Sepah dar Hal-i Hazir Mughabilih ba Tahdidat-i Dakhili Ast [Commander Jafari: Presently Sepah’s Primary Duty is to Combat Internal Threats], Fars News Agency, Sept. 29, 2007, available at http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=8607070416.

[42] Sarlashgar Jafari Farmandihyih Kull-i Sepah-e Pasdaran Shud [Commander Jafari Was Appointed the General Commander of Sepah], Mehr News Agency, Sept. 1, 2009, available at http://www.mehrnews.com/fa/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=544358; Irtiqa’-i Muavinat-i Ittila’t-i Sepah bih Sazman-i Ittila’t [Sepah’s Intelligence Organization is Promoted to Be the Intelligence Organization], Alef, Oct. 6, 2009, available at http://alef.ir/1388/content/view/54822/; Sardar Naqdi Ra’is-i Sazman-i Basij-i Mustazafan Shud [Brigadier General Naqdi Was Appointed Head of the Basij of the Dispossessed], Fars News Agency, Oct. 4, 2009, available at http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=8807121636.

[43] Article 1 of the Law for Judicial Protection of the Basij states: “The resistance force of the Basij of [Sepah], like the Judicial officers, is given permission to take necessary legal actions when encountering evident crimes and in cases of absence of the judicial officer, or their lack of timely action, or their announcement of help, in order to prevent the disappearance of the signs of crime and flight of the accused and to prepare and send a report to the judicial authorities.”

[44] IHRDC interview with Maryam Sabri (December 3, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[45] 32 Million Votes Cast in Elections, Press TV, June 12, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=97958.

[46] Protests Flare, supra note 34.

[47] The percentage of the electorate participating had consistently fallen through 1997, 2001 and 2005. Some constituencies advocated boycotting the elections in an effort to reduce the legitimacy of the regime. It is also believed that the drop was the result of general apathy in the electorate, which did not believe their votes would have any effect. In the 1997 elections, nearly 80 percent of the electorate participated. In 2001 and 2005, the percentages were 66 and 63 percent respectively. In 2005, the first ever runoff elections were held. Participation in that election fell further to 59 percent. See Iran Hardliner Sweeps to Victory, BBC, June 25, 2005, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4621249.stm.

[48] Confusion and Confrontation, supra note 36.

[49] Pas Az Israr-i Ra’is Jumhur dar Inkar-i Shikayat-i Mohsen Rezai, Namihyih In Candida bih Jannati dar Ikhtiyar-i Hamvatanan Qarar Girift [After the President Insisted to Deny that Mohsen Rezai Sent a Letter to Jannati, the Letter Was Made Accessible to the Public], Internet Website of Dr. Mohsen Rezai, June 14, 2009, available at http://www.rezaee.ir/fa/pages/?cid=8518. (Photo of original letter on file with IHRDC).

[50] Id.

[51] IHRDC interview with B.N.N., (Aug. 11, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[52] Id.

[53] Id.

[54] Preliminary Analysis of the Voting Figures in Iran’s 2009 Presidential Election, Chatam House, June 21, 2009, available at http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/files/14234_iranelection0609.pdf.

[55] Guardian Council: Over 100% Voted in 50 Cities, Press TV, June 21, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=98711§ionid=351020101.

[56] Protests Flare, supra note 34; Khordad-i Khunin: Guzarish-i Tafsiliyih Naqz-i Huquq-i Bashar dar Iran Pas az Intikhabat [Bloody Khordad [May-June]: Detailed Report of the Violations of Human rights in Iran after the Election], July 5, 2009, Human Rights Activists News Agency, available at http://www.hra-news.org/news/1416.aspx, that mentions widespread protests starting on June 13 and spreading throughout the country.

[57] Qat’-i Khutut-i Tilifun-i Hamrah dar Tehran [Cell Phone Lines Cut Off in Tehran], Aftab, June 13, 2009, available at http://aftabnews.ir/vdcfced1.w6dx0agiiw.html.

[58] IHRDC interview with J.B. (Nov. 18, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[59] IHRDC interview with Ebrahim Ali Mehtari (Dec. 3-4, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[60] IHRDC interview with J.B. (Nov. 18, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[61] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, art. 7, Jul. 17, 1998, 2187 U.N.T.S. 90 [hereinafter Rome Statute] available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/aadel.htm.

[62] Tazahurat-i Chand Hizar Nafari dar Tehran Idamih Darad [Demonstration of Several Thousands in Tehran Continues], Gooya News, June 13, 2009, available at http://news.gooya.com/politics/archives/2009/06/089091.php.

[63] IHRDC interview with J.Q. (July 21, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[64] Protests Flare, supra note 34.

[65] Vazir-i Kishvar dar Sitad-i Intikhabat: Barayih Tajamu’at Mujaviz Sadir Nakardim [Interior Minister at the Election Office: We Have Not Issued Permits for the Gatherings], ISNA, June 13, 2009, available at http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1355761.

[66] Fazayih Amniyatiyih Hakim bar Shahr-i NaAram-i Tehran [Military Atmosphere Governs the Restless City of Tehran], Advar News, June 13, 2009, available at http://www.advarnews.biz/politic/9132.aspx.

[67] IHRDC interview with P.Q. (July 21, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[68] IHRDC interview with Maryam Amoozegar (Nov. 10, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[69] Id.

[70] Ruzshumar-i Peiknet az Kuditayih 22 Khordad – 3 [Chronology of Peiknet of the June 12 Coup – 3], Peiknet, Nov. 18, 2009, available at http://www.peiknet.com/1388/05aban/27/page/31Ruzshomar.htm. In the midst of the Islamic Revolution, during the Moharram of 1978 and specially the days of Tasu’a and Ashura [December 10 and 11], people chanted ‘Allah’u akbar’ (God is great) from rooftops as a way of expressing their opposition to the Pahlavi regime. David Menashri, Iran, A Decade of War and Revolution 60 (1990).

[71] See Video File: Demonstrations in Tehran, Isfahan, Tabriz, Rasht, Shiraz, Qazvin, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bkfYX-o_3vg&feature=related.

[72] Robert F. Worth and Nazila Fathi, Unrest Deepens as Critics Are Detained, New York Times, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/15/world/middleeast/15iran.html?_r=1&pag.

[73] Ahmadinejad defends ‘dust and pebbles’ remark, Press TV, June 19, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail/98502.htm?sectionid=351020101. Robert F. Worth and Nazila Fathi, Defiance Grows as Iran’s Leader Sets Vote Review, New York Times, June 16, 2009, available at, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/16/world/middleeast/16iran.html?_r=1

[74] Robert F. Worth and Nazila Fathi, Unrest Deepens as Critics Are Detained, New York Times, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/15/world/middleeast/15iran.html?_r=1&pag.

[75] Nahid Siamdoust, Tehran’s Rallying Cry: ‘We Are the People of Iran’, Time, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,1904764,00.html [hereinafter Siamdust Article].

[76] Id.

[77] Saeed Kamali Dehqan, Death in the Dorms: Iranian Students Recall Horror of Police Invasion, Guardian, July 12, 2009, available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jul/12/iran-tehran-university-students-police [hereinafter Death in the Dorms].

[78] Yurish-i Police bih Danishgah [Storming of the University by the Police], Rooz Online, Jan. 30, 2008, available at http://www.roozonline.com/persian/archive/news/news/article/2008/january/29//-66e5af12d3.html.

[79] Id.

[80] Hamlihyih Khushunatbar-i Niruhayih Amniyati bih Kuyih Danishgah-i Tehran va Danishgah-i Isfahan [Violent Attack of the Security Forces to the Tehran University Dormitories and Isfahan University], BBC Persian, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/06/090614_si_bd_ir88_kooyedaneshgah.shtml.

[81] Death in the Dorms, supra note 77.

[82] Id.

[83] Id.; Ittlia’iyih Daftar-e Tahkim-e Vahdat Piramun-i bih Khak va Khun Kishidih Shudan-i Kuyih Danishgah-i Tehran [Announcement of Daftar-e Tahkim-e Vahdat Regarding the Vicious attacks on the Dormitories of Tehran University], Advar News, June 17, 2009, available at http://www.advarnews.biz/university/9154.aspx.

[84] See Abbas Hakimzadeh, Uzv-i Shurayih Markaziyih Daftar-e Tahkim-e Vahdat Azad Shud [Abbas Hakimzadeh, Member of the Central Cadre of Tahkim-e Vahdat was Released], Saham News, July 11, 2009, available at http://www.etemademelli.ir/published/0/00/51/5151 (last visited Sept. 14, 2009); explains Hakimzadeh was in prison for 135 days. Akharin Vaziyat-i Azayih Shawrayih Markaziyih Daftar-e Tahkim-e Vahdat [Latest News from the Members of the Central Cadre of the Office for Strengthening Unity], Committee of Human Rights Reporters, Jan. 8, 2010, available at http://chrr.us/spip.php?article7796.

[85] Norooz Asamiyih Shahidan-i Ihraz-i Huviyat Shudih ta bih Imruz ra Muntashir Mikunad, Asami va Mushakhasat-i 72 Shahid-i Sabz [Norooz Published the Names of the Martyrs whose Identity Has Been So far Established, Name and Identity of 72 Green Martyrs], Norooz, Sept. 4, 2009, available at http://norooznews.org/news/13739.php [hereinafter, Norooz List].

[86] Death in the Dorms, supra note 77.

[87] Norooz List, supra note 85. Hamlihyih Khushunatbar-i Niruhayih Amniyati bih Kuyih Danishgah-i Tehran va Danishgah-i Isfahan [Violent Attack of the Security Forces to the Tehran University Dormitories and Isfahan University], BBC Persian, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/06/090614_si_bd_ir88_kooyedaneshgah.shtml.

[88] Dawlat-i Kudita Jinazihyih Shuhadayih Kuy ra Dafn Kard [Government of the Coup Buried the Bodies of the Martyrs of University Dorms], Bamdad Khabar, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.bamdadkhabar.org/2009/06/post_1909/.

[89] Rahbar Wants Follow-up to Dorm Attack Probe, Press TV, July 4, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=99771§ionid=351070101.

[90] Ansar-i Hizbollah, meaning the followers of Hizbollah (party of God), is “a semi-official, paramilitary organization in Iran that carries out attacks on those it perceives to be violating the precepts of Islam, including women wearing makeup, reformist protestors, and unmarried couples.” See Ansar-i Hizbullah, Followers of the Party of God, Global Security, available at http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/world/iran/ansar.htm.

[91] See Hamlihyih Niruhayih Amniyati bih Danishgahhayih Shiraz, Isfahan va Tabriz [Attack of Security Forces to Shiraz, Isfahan and Tabriz Universities], Committee of Human Rights Reporters, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.chrr.us/print. php?articleid=4315; Hamlihyih Niruyih Intizami bih Kuyih Danishgah [The Law Enforcement Forces Attack University Dormitories], Akhbar-e Rooz, June 14, 2009, available at http://www.akhbar-rooz.com/article.jsp?essayId=21505.

[92] Amnesty, Arrest and Killings Rise as Election Protest Grip Iran, June 17, 2009, available at http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/news/arrests-and-killings-rise-election-protests-grip-iran-20090617.

[93] Gustarish-i NaArami dar Danishgahhayih Iran [Unrest Spreads in Iran’s Universities], BBC Persian, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/06/090615_ba-ir88-uni-unrest.shtml; Hamlihyih Niruhayih Amniyati bih Danishgahhayih Shiraz, Isfahan va Tabriz [Attack of Security Forces to Shiraz, Isfahan and Tabriz Universities], Committee of Human Rights Reporters, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.chrr.us/print.php?articleid=4315.

[94] Robert Tait, Unrest in Iran Spreads to the Provinces as Students Clash with Security Forces, Guardian, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jun/16/iran-shiraz-university-chancellor-resignation [Unrest Spreads].

[95] Id.

[96] Ittlia’iyih Daftar-e Tahkim-e Vahdat Piramun-i bih Khak va Khun Kishidih Shudan-i Kuyih Danishgah-i Tehran [Announcement of Daftar Tahkim-e Vahdat Regarding the Vicious attacks on the Dormitories of Tehran University], Advar News, June 17, 2009, available at http://www.advarnews.biz/university/9154.aspx.

[97] Robert Tait, Unrest in Iran Spreads to the Provinces as Students Clash with Security Forces, Guardian, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jun/16/iran-shiraz-university-chancellor-resignation. A witness to the events in Shiraz claimed on Mousavi’s website that this resignation was a ruse to calm the vitriol at Shiraz University after the attacks, and that the Chancellor had himself invited the security forces. Nivishtih Hayih Shahid-i Ayniyih Zarb va Shatm 25 Khordad-i Danishgah-i Shiraz [Writings of the Eye Witness of the Beatings of 25th of Khordad at Shiraz University], Mowj-e Sabz-e Azadi, Aug. 24, 2009, available at http://www.mowjcamp.com/article/id/21534 (last visited Nov. 4, 2009).

[98] In contrast, the Chancellor of Tehran University, Farhad Rahbar, blamed vandals and thugs, vaguely denied the nature of the attacks, and hinted at having given permission to security forces to enter the University. ISNA, Rahbari: No Student was Harmed, June 16, 2009, available at http://isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1357051&Lang=P. Rahbar later denied having given any security forces permission, though his statements were so contradictory that he confused even Iranian lawmaker Mohsen Kouhkan. Rahbari Wants Follow-up to Dorm Attack Probe, Press TV, July 4, 2009 available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=99771§ionid=351070101

[99] Martin Fletcher, Hardliners Open Fire on Defiant Protestors as Tension Grips Tehran, Times Online, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/middle_east/article6505842.ece.

[100] Id.

[101] Parisa Hafezi, Iran Speaker Condemns Attack on University Students, Reuters, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSTRE55F2ZC20090616.

[102] Iran Probes Attack on Tehran University Dorm, Press TV, September 8, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=105614§ionid=351020101.

[103] Id.

[104] Namayandigan-i Mardum dar Khaniyih Millat Havadis-i Ruzhayih Akhir ra Barrisi Kardand: Parvandihyih NaAramihayih Akhir dar Majlis [People’s Representatives in the Majlis Investigated the Recent Events: Report of the Recent Unrest in the Majlis], Ebtekar Newspaper, June 18, 2009, available at http://www.ebtekarnews.com/Ebtekar/News.aspx?NID=50689.

[105] In Iran, Mousavi Seeks Permission for Rallies, Press TV, June 14, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=98106§ionid=351020101.

[106] Mousavi Denied Permit for Post-Vote Victims Mourning, Press TV, July 28, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=101842§ionid=351020101.

[107] Mousavi: Umidvar bih Shawrayih Nigahban Nistam [Mousavi: I have No Hope in the Guardian Council], BBC Persian, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/06/090615_ba-ir88-mousavi-gathering.shtml; Tazahurat-i Milliuniyih Mardum dar Khiyaban-i Inqilab va Azadi [Demonstrations of Millions of People in Enghelab and Azadi Streets], Advar News, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.advarnews.us/politic/9146.aspx.

[108] Siamdust Article, supra note 75.

[109] IHRDC interview with H.S. (Dec. 4, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[110] Rahpayma’iyih Hamiyan-i Mousavi Barguzar Shud [Mousavi’s Supporters Had their Demonstration], Fars News Agency, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.farsnews.net/newstext.php?nn=8803250654.

[111] Sukhanan-i Mir-Hossein dar Rahpayma’iyih 25 Khordad [Speech of Mir-Hossein at June 15 Demonstration], Khabgard, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.khabgard.com/?id=-1534175924.

[112] Robert F. Worth and Nazila Fathi, Defiance Grows as Iran’s Leader Sets Vote Review, New York Times, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/16/world/middleeast/16iran.html?_r=1.

[113] Rahpayma’iyih Hamiyan-i Mousavi Barguzar Shud [Mousavi’s Supporters Had their Demonstration], Fars News Agency, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.farsnews.net/newstext.php?nn=8803250654.

[114] Siamdust Article, supra note 75. Protestors Rally for Mousavi in Election Dispute, Associate Press, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/31365097/ [hereinafter Rally for Mousavi].

[115] Rally for Mousavi, supra note 114.

[116] Guzarishha-i az Tazahurat-i Dushanbih 25 Khordad [Reports from the Demonstration of Monday, 25th of Khordad [June 15]], Peyk-e Iran, June 17, 2009, available at http://www.peykeiran.com/Content.aspx?ID=2345.

[117] Rally for Mousavi, supra note 114.

[118] Idamiyih I’tirazat dar Tehran va Shahrhayih Digar [Protests Continue in Tehran and Other Cities], Deutsche Welle, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,4330212,00.html. Protestors Rally for Mousavi in Election Dispute, Associate Press, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/31365097/.

[119] In June 2009, the use of force seemed to increase in the evenings. At one of the later demonstrations, a witness reported being warned about staying out too late, though the warning was unhelpful: “The [police] forces were saying that they won’t hit people until 8 pm, but when we left the mosque at seven, the guards had started beating people.” IHRDC interview with M.M.T. (Dec. 24, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[120] IHRDC interview with M.M.T. (Dec. 24, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[121] IHRDC interview with Maryam Sabri (December 3, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[122] There are several videos of this incident available online. See, e.g., Video File: Militia Shooting Protestors with Live Bullets, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lFs0a6-0J5o; Video File: Shooter at Basij Base in Azadi Street, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aviXWF1c0q0&feature=related.

[123] Iqtishash-i Sazmandihi Shudih va 7 Kushtih [Organized Riots and 7 Dead People], IRIB News, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.iribnews.ir/Default.aspx?Page=MainContent&news_num=193088.

[124] Video File: Militia Shooting Protestors with Live Bullets, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lFs0a6-0J5o; Video File: The only video of the Shooter at Basij Base in Azadi street, June 15, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aviXWF1c0q0&feature=related.

[125] Id.

[126] Video File: Basij Attacking People at Azadi Square after the Election, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BeJLbn9Vs_Q.

[127] List-i Janbakhtigan-i Shinasa-i Shudih bih 78 Nafar Risid [List of the Identified Dead Reached 78 People], HRA News, July 28, 2009, available at http://www.hra-news.org/news/2610.aspx.

[128] Id.

[129] Nader Karami, Basij Shooter Killed Davoud Sadri, Rooz Online, August 1, 2009, available at http://www.roozonline.com/english/news/newsitem/article/2009/august/01//Basiji-shooter-killed-davoud-sadri.html

[130] IHRDC interview with witness M. (Aug. 17, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[131] Madaram Hichvaqt Marg-i Kianoosh ra Bavar Nimikunad [My Mother Will Never Believe Kianoosh’s Death], Radio Farda, Aug. 19, 2009, available at http://www.radiofarda.com/articleprintview/1802961.html.

[132] My One Son Is Buried and the Other One Is in Prison, Rooz Online, Dec. 10, 2009, available at http://www.roozonline.com/english/news/newsitem/article/2009/december/10//my-one-son-is-buried-and-the-other-is-in-prison.html.

[133] Norooz List, supra note 85.

[134] Id.

[135] IHRDC interview with F.A. (Dec. 22, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[136] Norooz List, supra note 85.

[137] Hossein Akhtarzand, Another Victim of the Post-Election Violence, Iran Human Rights Voice, Aug. 21, 2009, available at http://www.ihrv.org/inf/?p=2642.

[138] Nazila Fathi, Protestors Defy Iranian Efforts to Cloak Unrest, New York Times, June 17, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/18/world/middleeast/18iran.html.

[139] Bayaniyihyih Vizarat-i Umur-i Kharijih dar Vakunish bih Risanihhayih Qarbi [Statement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in response to the reaction of the Foreign Media], Kayhan, 03/28/1388 [June 18, 2009], available at http://kayhannews.ir/880328/3.HTM#other300.

[140] Iran Bars Foreign Media from Reporting on Streets, Associated Press, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/8560894.

[141] Iran Opposition Keeps up Pressure, BBC News, June 16, 2009, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8103577.stm.

[142] IHRDC interview with Witness M. (Aug. 17, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[143] Thousands of Mousavi Supporters Head for TV Building, Reuters, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSTRE55F54020090616.

[144] Iran Opposition Keeps Up Pressure, BBC, June 16, 2009, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8103577.stm.

[145] Norooz List, supra note 85.

[146] Farnaz Fassihi, Iran Arrests Reformers as Huge Protests Continue, Wall Street Journal, June 18, 2009, available at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124523854750623001.html.

[147] Iranian Protesters Mostly Unfazed by Government Warnings, CNN, June 17, 2009, available at http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/meast/06/17/iran.elections.rallies/index.html.

[148] Sharon Otterman and Alan Cowell, Protestors Defy Iranian Efforts to Cloak Unrest, New York Times, June 17, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/18/world/middleeast/18iran.html.

[149] Namihyih Sargushadihyih Muhandis Mir-Hossein Mousavi bih Shawrayih Amniyat-i Kishvar darbarihyih Iqdamat-i Qayr-i Qanuniyih Libas Shakhsi-ha [Open Letter of Mir-Hossein Mousavi to the National Security Council regarding the Illegal Actions of the Plainclothes], Committee of Human Rights Reporters, June 17, 2009, available at http://chrr.us/print.php?articleid=4329; Parisa Hafezi and Hashem Kalantari, Iran Set for a Day of Mourning after Protest Deaths, Reuters, June 17, 2009, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE55F54520090617.

[150] Bayaniyihyih Jadid-i Mir-Hossein Mousavi: Panjshanbih ba Namad-i Sugvari, Tajam’u va Tazahurat Kunid [New Statement of Mir-Hossein Mousavi: Demonstrate and Gather on Thursday with Symbols of Mourning], Ham Mihan, June 17, 2009, available at http://hammihannews.com/news/4779. Nazila Fathi and Michael Slackman, As Confrontation Deepens, Iran’s Path Is Unclear, New York Times, June 18, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/19/world/middleeast/19iran.html?_r=1.

[151] Nazila Fathi and Michael Slackman, As Confrontation Deepens, Iran’s Path Is Unclear, New York Times, June 18, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/19/world/middleeast/19iran.html?_r=1.

[152] Id.

[153] Ian Black and Saeed Kamali Dehqan, Iran Elections: Guardian Council to Examine Vote-Rigging Claims, Guardian, June 18, 2009, available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jun/18/iran-protest-mourning; Iran Clerics Schedule Pro-Mousavi Rally, Press TV, June 18, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail/98410.htm?sectionid=351020101.

[154] Iran Opposition Rallies again in Tehran, Agence France-Presse, June 18, 2009, available at http://rawstory.com/news/afp/Iran_opposition_rallies_again_in_Te_06182009.html. See also, Tajamu-i Azim-i Mukhalifan dar Tehran, Laqv-i Tazahurat-i Jum’i [Colossal Gathering of Opposition in Tehran, Cancelling Friday Demonstration], BBC Persian, June 18, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/06/090618_si_ir88_friday_noprotest.shtml. Repression Stepped Up Yet Again as Iran Becomes the World’s Biggest Prison for Journalists, Reporters Without Borders, June 21, 2009, available at http://www.rsf.org/spip.php?page=article&id_article=33474.

[155] Iran Council Warns Mousavi Against Rallies, Press TV, June 20, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.com/detail/98558.htm?sectionid=351020101.

[156] Id.

[157] Hushdar-i Ayatollah Khamenei dar Murid-i Idamiyih Tazahurat-i Khiyabani [Warning of Ayatollah Khamenei Regarding Continuing Street Protests], BBC Persian, June 19, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/06/090619_he_ir88_khamenei.shtml; and IHRDC interview with M. (Aug. 17, 2009) (on file with IHRDC). Nazila Fathi, Iran’s Top Leader Dashes Hopes for a Compromise, New York Time, June 19, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/20/world/middleeast/20iran.html; 2 Kandidayih Mu’tariz Namayandih Mu’arifi Nakardand, Shawrayih Nigahban Ra’san Bazshumari Kar [The Two Protesting Candidates Didn’t Introduce their Representatives: Guardian Council Recounted on Its Own], Fars News Agency, July 1, 2009, available at http://www.farsnews.net/newstext.php?nn=8804100052.

[158] See Quran 62:9-10; Ahamiyyat-i Namaz-i Jum’i [Importance of Friday Prayer], Hawzah, available at http://www.hawzah.net/Hawzah/Articles/Articles.aspx?LanguageID=1&id=60488&SubjectID=59952; Jaygah va Vijigihayih Namaz-i Jum’i [Importance and Status of Friday Prayer], Resalat, July 27, 2006, available at http://www.magiran.com/npview.asp?ID=1153718.

[159] Interview with M. (Aug. 17, 2009) (on file with IHRDC). Nazila Fathi, Iran’s Top Leader Dashes Hopes for a Compromise, New York Time, June 19, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/20/world/middleeast/20iran.html.

[160] Bayanat-i Muhimm-i Rahbar-i Mu’azam-i Inqilab dar Khutbihhayih Namaz Jum’i Piramun-i Intikhabat [Important Message of the Esteemed Leader of the Revolution in the Friday Sermon regarding the Election], Jumhouri Eslami, 03/30/1388 [June 20, 2009], available at http://www.jomhourieslami.com/1388/13880330/.

[161] Reading into the meaning of the sermon, Amnesty International warned that the Supreme Leader had “given the go ahead for the police to launch violent crackdowns on people who continue to protest the country’s election results.” Amnesty International, Iran’s Supreme Leader Condones Violent Police Crackdown on Protestors, June 19, 2009, available at http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/news/iran-supreme-leader-condones-violent-police-crackdown-on-protesters-20090619.

[162] Protestors Stage Illegal Rally in Tehran, Press TV, June 20, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=98606§ionid=351020101.

[163] Armed Vandals ‘Killed Civilians’ in Tehran, Press TV, June 22, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=98746§ionid=351020101 [hereinafter Armed Vandals]. See Dah Kushtih va Yiksad Zakhmi dar Dargirihayih Diruz-i Tehran [Ten Dead and One Hundred Injured in Tehran’s Clashes Yesterday], BBC Persian, 21 June 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/06/090621_ka_ir88_tehran_clashes.shtml.

[164] Iran Police Clash with Protestors, BBC, June 20, 2009, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8110582.stm.

[165] IHRDC interview with M. (Aug. 17, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[166] Iran Police Clash with Protestors, BBC, June 20, 2009, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8110582.stm.

[167] IHRDC interview with P.R.Q. (July 21, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[168] Iran Police Clash with Protestors, BBC, June 20, 2009, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8110582.stm.

[169] Norooz List, supra note 85.

[170] Video File: Shooting of the Basij at the Civilians, June, 25, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=srzMo4Zatcg&feature=PlayList&p=BBE591B85F04F82A&index=43.

[171] Parastu Sepehri, My Brother Was Only 18, Rooz Online, July 1, 2009, available at http://www.roozonline.com/english/interview/interview/article/2009/july/01//my-brother-was-only-18.html.

[172] Farnaz Fassihi, Son’s Death Has Iranian Family Asking Why, Wall Street Journal, June 23, 2009, available at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124571865270639351.html.

[173] BBC interview with Milad Hashemzadeh at Ittila’t-i Tazih dar Murid-i Khushtih Shudan-i Masoud-i Hashemzadeh [New Information Regarding the Death of Masoud Hashemzadeh], BBC Persian, July 21, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/07/090721_nm_iran_hashemzadeh.shtml.

[174] Id.

[175] Id.

[176] Id.

[177] Borzou Daragahi, Family, Friends Mourn ‘Neda,’ Iranian Woman who Died on Video, Los Angeles Times, June 23, 2009, available at http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-iran-neda23-2009jun23,0,366975,full.story.

[178] Id.

[179] See BBC interview with Arash Hejazi at Iran Doctor Tells of Neda’s Death, BBC, June 25, 2009, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8119713.stm.

[180] Id.

[181] See video of Neda Agha-Soltan’s death at IHRDC’s Election 2009 Violence page, available at http://www.iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/videos2.htm

[182] Id.

[183] See BBC interview with Arash Hejazi at Iran Doctor Tells of Neda’s Death, BBC, June 25, 2009, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8119713.stm.

[184] Borzou Daragahi, Family, Friends Mourn ‘Neda,’ Iranian Woman who Died on Video, Los Angeles Times, June 23, 2009, available at http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-iran-neda23-2009jun23,0,366975,full.story.

[185] See Video File: Voice of America Interview with Arash Hejazi, July 27, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hYJJKVPtLOk.

[186] Id.

[187] Death Video Woman ‘Targeted by Militia’, BBC, June 22, 2009, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8113552.stm.

[188] Caspian Makan: ‘I Cannot Believe it Yet. I Still Think I Will See Neda Again,’ Guardian, Nov. 15, 2009, available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/nov/15/iran-neda-caspian-makan-interview.

[189] Interpol Hunting for Witness of Neda’s Death, Press TV, July 1, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=99571§ionid=351020101; Basij Calls for Hejazi’s Extradition, Press TV, Nov. 11, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=110991§ionid=351020101.

[190] Iran Police Chief Says Interpol Remarks Distorted, Press TV, July 6, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=99938§ionid=351020101.

[191] Iranian Doctor Arash Hejazi who Tried to Rescue Neda Soltan Tells of Wounds that Never Heal, Times Online, Nov. 13, 2009, available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article6913273.ece.

[192] Basij Calls for Hejazi’s Extradition, Press TV, Nov. 11, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=110991§ionid=351020101.

[193] Iran Condemns Oxford University’s politically Motivated Scholarship, IRNA, Nov. 10, 2009, available at http://www.irna.ir/En/View/FullStory/?NewsId=783122&IdLanguage=3; Letter of the Embassy of Islamic Republic of Iran to Prof. Paul Madden, Provost of the Queens College at Oxford University, Time Online, available at http://extras.timesonline.co.uk/pdfs/letter1.jpg.

[194] See Letter of the Embassy of Islamic Republic of Iran to Prof. Paul Madden, Provost of the Queens College at Oxford University, Time Online, available at http://extras.timesonline.co.uk/pdfs/letter1.jpg.

[195] IHRDC interview with M. (Aug. 17, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[196] Protestors Stage Illegal Rally in Tehran, Press TV, June 20, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=98606§ionid=351020101.

[197] Armed Vandals, supra note 163. Press TV also reported that protestors set fire to a mosque and other buildings.

[198] Juziyat-i BumbGuzari dar Haram-i Imam [Details of Bombing in Imam’s Shrine], Fars News Agency, June 20, 2009, available at http://www.farsnews.net/newstext.php?nn=8803301162.

[199] IHRDC interview with M. (Aug. 17, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[200] Armed Vandals, supra note 163.

[201] IHRDC interview with J.B. (Dec. 18, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[202] Guzarish-i Dargirihayih Ruz-i 18 Tir dar Tehran [Report of the 18th of Tir [July 9th] Clashes in Tehran], BBC Persian, July 9, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/07/090709_ba-ir88-protests-tehran-uni.shtml; Iran Police Disperse Pro-Reformists – Witness, Reuters, July 9, 2009, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSL9616401.

[203] Dar Kahrizak Ab ra Milisidim [We Licked Water in Kahrizak], Rooz Online, May 28, 2009, available at http://www.roozonline.com/persian/news/newsitem/article/2009/july/29//-7d123bfc2d.html.

[204] Qatl-i Amd-i Had’iaqal Sih Nafar dar Kahrizak Muhraz Shud [The Intentional Murder of at Least Three people was Evident in Kahrizak], Rouydad, Dec. 19, 2009, available at http://www.rouydadnews.com/pages/801.php.

[205] They were Mohsen Ruholamini, Amir Javadifar and Mohammad Kamrani. See infra Section 3.1

[206] Farmandihyih NAJA: Hich Bazdashti dar Ikhtiyar-i Ma Nist [NAJA Commander: There Are No Remaining Detainees in Our Custody], Saham News, July 10, 2009, available at http://www.etemademelli.ir/published/0/00/50/5093/ (last visited on Sept. 14, 2009).

[207] Rafsanjani’s Daughter Arrested in Iran, India Times, June 21, 2009, available at http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/middle-east/Rafsanjanis-daughter-arrested-in-Iran/articleshow/4683868.cms; Ahmadinejad Wants Certain Power-Holders in Court, Press TV, Aug. 17, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=103803&.

[208] More Protestors Detained: Tehran Police Chief, Press TV, July 18, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=101036§ionid=351020101.

[209] Film va Matn-i Kamil-i Namaz-i Jum’iyih Tir Mah bih Imamat-i Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani [Complete Text and Video of the Friday Prayer of the month of Tir by Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani], Website of Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani, Jan. 18, 2009, available at http://www.hashemirafsanjani.ir/?type=dynamic&lang=1&id=1570.

[210] Pasukh-i Sida va Sima bih Muntaqidan darbariyih Sansur-i Khutbih Hayih Hashemi [Response of IRIB to the Critiques Regarding Censoring Hashemi’s Sermon], Aftab, July 21, 2009, available at http://www.aftab.ir/news/2009/jul/21/c5c1248161189_art_culture_media_tv.php.

[211] In Tehran, Protests Follow Friday Prayer, Press TV, July 17, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=100935§ionid=351020101.

[212] More Protestors Detained: Tehran Police Chief, Press TV, July 18, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=101036§ionid=351020101.

[213] Iran Police Detain Many Tehran Protesters: Witness, Reuters, July 21, 2009, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE56K3YH20090721; Robert F. Worth and Nazila Fathi, Ahmadinejad Seen as Increasingly Vulnerable Since Re-election, New York Time, July 26, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/27/world/middleeast/27iran.html.

[214] In Shi’a Islam, the significant days of mourning are the day of, and the third, seventh and fortieth days after the death of an individual.

[215] In Iran, Police Clash with Mourners of Post-Vote Victims, Press TV, July 30, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=102035.

[216] Mujaviz-i barayih Barpa’iyih Tajamu’ ya Barguzariyih Marasim Sadir Nashudih Ast [No Permit Has Been Issued for a Gathering or Ceremony to Take Place], July 28, 2009, IRINN, available at http://www.irinn.ir/Default.aspx?TabId=15&nid=147233; Violence Breaks Out on Streets of Tehran, Washington Post, July 31, 2009, available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/07/30/AR2009073000291.html.

[217] On Mourning Day, Iranian Police Arrests 50 Protestors, Press TV, July 31, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=102105§ionid=351020101.

[218] Id.

[219] Fisharhayih Siyasi Mujib-i Laqv-i Marasim-i Shabhayih Ehya dar Marqad-i Imam Khomeini Shud [Political Pressure Led to Cancellation of Ehya Night Ceremonies at Imam Khomeini’s Shrine], Parleman News, Sept. 4, 2009, available at http://www.parlemannews.ir/index.aspx?n=3223. Ehya is a restoration or remembrance rite of the receiving of the Koran celebrated in the month of Ramadan.

[220] Hamiyan-i Kudita az Barguzariyih Marasim-i Yadbud-i Ayatollah Taleghani ham Jilugiri Kardand [Supporters of the Coup Prevented the Remembrance of Anniversary of Ayatollah Taleghani to Take Place], Mowj-i Sabz-i Azadi, Sept. 7, 2009, available at http://www.mowjcamp.com/article/id/27173. Taleghani was a leader of the opposition against the Shah and a founding member of the Freedom Movement.

[221] Marasim-i Salgard-i Shahid Ashrafi Isfahani Laqv Shud [Commemoration Ceremony of Martyr Ashrafi Isfahani’s Anniversary of Death was Cancelled], Mowj-i Sabz-i Azadi, Oct. 14, 2009, available at http://mowjcamp.com/article/id/47681; Namaz-i Eid-i Fitr Ham dar Mosallah Laqv Shud [Eid al-Fitr Prayer in Mosallah Was Cancelled], Salaam News, Sept. 5, 2009, available at http://salaamnews.ir/ShowNews.php?8378. Ayatollah Isfahani was a prominent aid to Ayatollah Khomeini who was assassinated in 1982 by the MEK.

[222] In 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini invited Muslims around the world to rally on the last Friday of the month of Ramadan in solidarity with the Palestinians (Quds is the Arabic name for Jerusalem.) See The universal Day of Quds, Islamic Digest, available at http://www.islamicdigest.net/v7core/editorial-the-universal-day-of-quds-14282007/.

[223] Nasser Karimi, Thousands March in Iran Opposition Protests, ABC News, Sept. 18, 2009, available at http://abcnews.go.com/print?id=8608799.

[224] Ikhlalgaran dar Rahpaymaiyih Ruz-i Quds ba Barkhurd-i Farzandan-i Qayur-i Millat Muvajih Khahand Shud [Disrupters on Quds Day Will Encounter the Brave Sons of this Nation], Fars News Agency, Sept. 17, 2009, available at http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=8806260664; Iranians rally on ‘al-Quds Day’, Aljazeera, Sept. 18, 2009, available at http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2009/09/200991875246806121.html.

[225] Nasser Karimi, Thousands March in Iran Opposition Protests, ABC News, Sept. 18, 2009, available at http://abcnews.go.com/print?id=8608799.

[226] Clashes Erupt at Iran’s Mass Rally, BBC, Sept. 18, 2009, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8262273.stm.

[227] After Quds Day, Iran Police Say ‘Several’ Arrested, Press TV, Sept. 19, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=106618§ionid=351020101.

[228] Iran Students Hold Anti-Government Protest: Website, Reuters, Sept. 28, 2009, available at http://in.reuters.com/articlePrint?articleId=INTRE58R4DS20090928; Nazila Fathi, Authorities in Iran Arrest 18 Students, New York Time, Oct. 3, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/03/world/asia/03iran.html.

[229] Ayatollah Jannati dar Khutbihhayih Namaz-i Jum’iyih Tehran [Ayatollah Jannati in the Friday Sermon of Tehran], 25/07/1388 [Oct. 17, 2009], Jomhouri Eslami, available at http://www.jomhourieslami.com/1388/13880725/index.html; Iran Cleric Warns Against Planned Opposition Rally, Seattle Times, Oct. 16, 2009, available at http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2010078320_apmliran.html; Ahmadinejad bih Kudam Himayatha Chashm Dukhtih [The Supports Ahmadinejad Is Hoping For], Rooz Online, June 11, 2009, available at http://www.roozonline.com/persian/news/newsitem/article/2009/june/11//-e177fa1f4d.html.

[230] Iran Cleric Warns Against Planned Opposition Rally, Seattle Times, Oct. 16, 2009, available at http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2010078320_apmliran.html.

[231] Barkhurd ba Hargunih Tajamu’-i Qayr-i Qanuni dar Ruz-i 13 Aban [Encountering Any Kind of Illegal Gathering on 13th of Aban [Nov. 4th]], Mehr News Agency, Nov. 1, 2009, available at http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2010078320_apmliran.html; Iran Warns of Crackdown on Any Opposition Protest, Agence France-Presse, Nov 1, 2009, available at http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5iZtE16AUy-AOidK-YtcGCh5ESalw.

[232] Police Set Location for Tehran Anti-US Rally, Press TV, Nov. 3, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id= 110313§ionid=351020101.

[233] Release Jailed Iranian Women, Mousavi’s Wife Urges, Reuters, Nov. 3, 2009, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE5A20PN20091103.

[234] Opposed Rallies on US Embassy Takeover Anniversary, Press TV, Nov. 4, 2009, available at  http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id= 110449§ionid=351020101.

[235] IHRDC interview with J.B. (Dec. 18, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[236] Id.

[237] Id.

[238] IHRDC interview with A.U.S. (Dec. 23, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[239] IHRDC interview with N.A. (Nov. 13, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[240] IHRDC interview with J.B. (Dec. 18, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[241] IHRDC interview with M.I. (ِDec. 25, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[242] Juz’iyati az Mumani’at-i Guard-i Yigan-i Vijih Az Tadavum-i Huzur-i Karroubi dar Miyan-i Mardum [Report of the Special Forces Preventing Karroubi from Remaining Amongst the People], Rah-e Sabz, Nov. 4, 2009, available at http://www.rahesabz.net/story/3560/.

[243] Libas Shakhsiha Mani’i Khuruj-i Mir-Hossein az Farhangistan Shudand [Plainclothes Prevented Mir-Hossein Exiting the Art Center], Parleman News, Nov. 4, 2009, available at http://www.parlemannews.ir/?n=5123.

[244] Arrests of Journalists Since Disputed June Election Now Top 100, Reporters Without Borders, Nov. 5, 2009, available at http://www.rsf.org/spip.php?page=article&id_article=34918.

[245] Sih Khabarnigar-i Risanihayih Khariji Bazdasht Shudand [Three Reporters from Foreign Media Were Arrested], Fars News Agency, Nov. 6, 2009, available at http://www.farsnews.net/newstext.php?nn=8808150392; Dadsitan-i Tehran, Sih Taba’iyih Kharijiyih Bazdasht Shudih dar Ruz-i 13 Aban Azad Shudand [Prosecutor of Tehran: the Three Foreigners who were arrested on 13th of Aban [Nov. 4th] Were Released], IRNA, Nov. 6, 2009, available at http://www.irna.ir/View/FullStory/?NewsId=775365.

[246] Tehran Police Clashes with Families of Detainees, Radio Zamaneh, Nov. 5, 2009, available at http://www.zamaaneh.com/enzam/2009/11/tehran-police-clashes-wit.html.

[247] Iran Says Over 100 People Detained at Anti-U.S. Rally, UNHCR, Nov. 07, 2009, available at http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,,,IRN,,4af82edb8,0.html.

[248] Azar Mah, Yad Avar-i Mubarizat-i Junbish-i Danishju’iyih Iran [Month of Azar: Reminiscing the Resistance of the Iranian Student Movement] Mowj-i Sabz-i Azadi, Nov. 23, 2009, available at http://www.mowjcamp.com/article/id/66615 (last visited Nov. 30, 2009).

[249] Iran: Top Student Leader Arrested, Payvand, Dec. 3, 2009, available at http://www.payvand.com/news/09/dec/1025.html.

[250] Bazdasht-i Bish az Dah Nafar az Madaran-i Azadar [Detaining Over Ten Mourning Mothers], Change for Equality, Dec. 5, 2009, available at http://www.signforchange.info/spip.php?article5110.

[251] Khushunat-i Tamam Ayar dar Muqabil-i Itirazat-i Musalimat Amiz 16 Azar [Full Force Violence as a Response to Peaceful Demonstrations of 16 Azar [Dec. 7th]], Human Rights Activists News Agency, Dec. 7, 2009, available at http://hra-news.org/news/10162.aspx; Robert F. Worth and Nazila Fathi, Iranian Students Clash With Police, New York Time, Dec. 8, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/08/world/middleeast/08iran.html.

[252] Dargiri dar Daneshgah-i Bu Ali-yih Hamedan [Clash at Hamedan Bu Ali University], Fara Ru, Dec. 7, 2009, available at http://fararu.com/vdcepz8x.jh8poi9bbj.html; See also Video File: A student at Hamedan University Is Thrown Down from the Second Floor by Basiji Militia, Dec. 7, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kl1wct1eh_M.

[253] Majid Tavakoli, Uzv-i Anjuman-i Islamiyih Polytechnic Bazdasht Shud [Majid Tavakoli, Member of the Islamic Association of Tehran’s Polytechnic Was Arrested], AUT News, Dec. 7, 2009, available at http://www.autnews.es/node/4809 (last visited on Dec. 7, 2009).

[254] Kaveh Ghasemi Kermanshahi, My One Son is Buried and the Other is in Prison, Rooz Online, Dec. 10, 2009, available at http://www.roozonline.com/english/news/newsitem/article/2009/december/10//my-one-son-is-buried-and-the-other-is-in-prison.html.

[255] Rajabzadeh: Dar Jaryan-i Ashubhayih 16 Azar 204 Nafar Bazdasht Shudand [In the 16th of Azar [Dec. 7th] Unrest, 204 People Were Detained], IRNA, Dec. 8, 2009, available at http://www.irna.ir/View/FullStory/?NewsId=831304.

[256] Intiqad az Pakhsh-i Film-i Tilivisiuniyih Ihanat bih Aks-i Ayatollah Khomeini [Criticizing the TV Broadcasting of the Video of Disrespecting Imam Khomeini’s Photo], BBC Persian, Dec. 11, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/12/091211_he_ir88_khomeini_pix.shtml.

[257] Tasmim-i Mushtarak-i Mehdi Karroubi va Mir-Hossein Mousavi: Darkhast-i Mujaviz-i Rahpayma-i [Joint Decision of Mehdi Karroubi and Mir-Hossein Mousavi: Request for a Demonstration Permit], Kalameh, Dec. 14, 2009, available at http://www.kaleme.org/1388/09/23/klm-5615.

[258] Sabzha Hamchinan dar Intizar-i Mujaviz-i Rahpayma’i [Greens Still Await a Demonstration Permit], Rah-e Sabz, Dec. 17, 2009, available at http://www.rahesabz.net/story/5581/.

[259] Ayatollah Ali Sistani, in his condolences to Montazeri’s son and followers, referred to him as an “esteemed religious jurist.” Bayaniyih Mu’azam’u’lah bih Munasibat-i Irtihal-i Hazrat-i Ayatollah Montazeri (Qudis-a Sirra) [Message of the Esteemed Ayatollah on the Occasion of the Passing of Ayatollah Montazeri (May his Grave be Sanctified)] the Official Website of Grand Ayatollah Sistani, Dec. 20, 2009, available at http://www.sistani.org/local.php?modules=extra&eid=2&sid=143; On the day of his death, Grand Ayatollahs Golpayegani, Ardebili and Saanei as well as several mid-ranking ayatollahs paid their respects at Montazeri’s house. Tasliyat-i Maraji va Ulama bih Bayt-i Marhum Ayatollah Montazeri [Condolences of the Maraji and the Scholars to the House of the Late Ayatollah Montazeri], Mehr News Agency, Dec. 20, 2009, available at http://www.mehrnews.com/fa/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=1003848; Even the Supreme Leader noted in his sometimes dismissive condolence letter that Montazeri was a “well-versed jurist and a prominent master.” Leader Offers Condolences over Ayatollah Montazeri’s Death, Press TV, Dec. 20, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id= 114219§ionid=351020101.                

[260] See Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, Deadly Fatwa: Iran’s 1988 Prison Massacre, 60-61 (2009), available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/reports.htm.  

[261] Clashes Reported at Funeral of Iranian Dissident Cleric, BBC, Dec. 21, 2009, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8423794.stm; For videos from several sites and cities see Latest Iran News, Demonstration in Memory of Montazeri, Enduring America, Dec. 20, 2009, available at http://enduringamerica.com/2009/12/20/latest-iran-video-demonstrations-in-memory-of-montazeri-20-december/.

[262] Bazdasht-i Jam’i az Fa’lan-i Siyasi dar Rah-i Azimat bih Qom [Arrest of a Group of Political Activist En Rout to Qom], Rouydad, Dec. 21, 2009, available at http://www.rouydadnews.com/pages/829.php.

[263] Clashes Reported at Funeral of Iranian Dissident Cleric, BBC, Dec. 21, 2009, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8423794.stm.

[264] Ta’ruz bih Bayt-i Ayatollah Montazeri [Aggression Toward the House of Ayatollah Montazeri], Ham Mihan, Dec. 21 2009, available at http://www.hammihannews.com/news/8097.

[265] Ayatollah Taheri, a former close aid to Ayatollah Khomeini, resigned his post in 2002 in protest against the regime’s policies. The Public Letter and Resignation of Ayatollah Taheri of Isfahan City, Daneshjoo, Aug. 10, 2002, available at http://www.daneshjoo.org/article/publish/printer_20.shtml.

[266] Hamlihyih Libas Shakhsiha bih Muqalidan va Alaqimandan-i Ayatollah Montazeri dar Isfahan [Attack of the Plainclothes to the Emulators and Those Interested in Ayatollah Montazeri in Isfahan], Parleman News, Dec. 23, 2009, available at http://www.parlemannews.ir/index.aspx?n=6554; Hamlihyih Gustardihyih Niruhayih Amniyati bih Marasim-i Khatm-i Ayatollah Montazeri dar Isfahan [Widespread Attack of the Security Forces to the Mourning Ceremony of Ayatollah Montazeri in Isfahan], Norooz News, Dec. 23, 2009, available at http://norooznews.info/news/15792.php.

[267] Hamlihyih Libas Shakhsiha bih Muqalidan va Alaqimandan-i Ayatollah Montazeri dar Isfahan [Attack of the Plainclothes to the Emulators and Those Interested in Ayatollah Montazeri in Isfahan], Parleman News, Dec. 23, 2009, available at http://www.parlemannews.ir/index.aspx?n=6554.

[268] Muhasirihyih Bayt-i Ayatollah Taheri Tavasut-i Niruhayih Amniyati [Security Forces Surround the House of Ayatollah Taheri in Isfahan], Rah-e Sabz, Dec. 23, 2009, available at http://www.rahesabz.net/story/6082/; Farzand-i Ayatollah Taheri Bazdasht Shud [Son of Ayatollah Taheri Was Arrested], Human Rights Activists News Agency, Dec. 28, 2009, available at http://www.hranews.info/news/PNews.aspx?request=11195. Mohammad Taheri is married to Ayatollah Khomeini’s granddaughter.

[269] Every Day Is Ashura and Every Land Is Kerbala, Ashura.com, available at http://www.ashura.com/.

[270] Protestors: ‘Killing Muslims on Ashura is like Crucifying Christians on Christmas’, ABC World News, Dec. 28, 2009, available at http://abcnews.go.com/WN/iranian-government-arrests-hundreds-tensions-mount/story?id=9436148.

[271] Video File: Tasu’a 1388, Attack of the Basij in the Middle of Khatami’s Speech in Jamaran, Dec. 26, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aaz5b5TNOEc.

[272] Dargiri dar Tabriz, Ihtimal-i Kushtih Shudan-i Had’iaqal 4 Nafar [Arrests in Tabriz, Possibility of 4 Deaths], Rouydad, Dec. 27, 2009, available at http://www.rouydadnews.com/pages/952.php; Dargiriyih Shadid-i Shibhih Nizamiyan ba Azadaran dar Babol [Heavy Clash of the Para-Military with the Mourners in Babol], Rouydad, Dec. 27, 2009, available at http://www.rouydadnews.com/pages/948.php; Hamliyih Vahshiyanihyih Niruhayih Intizami bih Azadaran-i Hosseini dar Arak [Violent Attack on the Hosseini Mourners by the Law Enforcement], Rouydad, Dec. 27, 2009, available at http://www.rouydadnews.com/pages/956.php; Video File: Iran, Isfahan, Najafabad, Ashura Protest, 27 Dec. 2009, available at Video File: Isfahan, Najafabad Ashura Protest, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ITySVDg54BM.

[273] See Mushakhasat-i Qatil-i Khaharzadihyih Mir-Hossein Mousavi va Shuhadayih Ruz-i Ashura [Specification of the Murder of Nephew of Mir-Hossein Mousavi and the Martyrs of Ashura], Rah-e Sabz, Dec. 30, 2009, available at http://www.rahesabz.net/story/6703. See also videos of the Ashura Protests at IHRDC’s Election 2009 Violence page, available at http://www.iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/videos2.htm.

[274] Bazdasht-i Bish az 400 Nafar dar Isfahan [Arrest of Over 400 People in Isfahan], Rah-e Sabz, Dec. 28, 2009, available at http://www.rahesabz.net/story/6558/.

[275] Bish az Hizar Nafar dar Tehran Bazdasht Shudand [Over A Thousand People Were Detained in Tehran], Human Rights Activists News Agency, Dec. 28, 2009, available at http://www.hra-news.org/news/PNews.aspx?request=11183.

[276] I’lam-i Hukumat-i Nizami dar Najafabad [Martial Law Declared in Najafabad], Gooya News, Dec. 28, 2009, available at http://news.gooya.com/politics/archives/2009/12/098216.php; Robert F. Worth and Nazila Fathi, Police Are Said to Have Killed 10 in Iran Protests, New York Time, Dec. 28, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/28/world/middleeast/28iran.html.

[278] Id.

[279] Video File: Police Car Running over People, Dec. 29, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= t6vXWXdIs0U&skipcontrinter=1.

[280] Bulitin-i Vijihyih IRNA: Si va Haft Kushtih dar Ruz-i Ashura dar Sarasar-i Kishvar [IRNA’s Special Bulletin: Thirty Seven Killed on Ashura Around the Country], Rah-e Sabz, Dec. 29, 2009, available at http://www.rahesabz.net/story/6669/.

[281] Dargiri dar Tabriz, Ihtimal-i Kushtih Shudan-i Had’iaqal 4 Nafar [Arrests in Tabriz, Possibility of 4 Deaths], Rouydad, Dec. 27, 2009, available at http://www.rouydadnews.com/pages/952.php.

[282] 7 Killed on Ashura Day: Tehran Prosecutor, Press TV, Dec. 29, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id= 114882§ionid=351020101.

[283] Press TV: Hasht Kushtih dar Dargirihayih Ruz-i Ashura [Press TV: Eight Killed in the Ashura Clashes], Mardomak, Dec. 28, 2009, available at http://www.mardomak.me/news/press_tv_says_eight_killed_in_ashoora_clashes/. The government announced that 15 died and that five were killed by terrorists, and ten belonged to anti-revolutionary and terror groups. Hardliners Seize Mousavi Corpse as Iran Regime Hits Back, Times Online, Dec. 29, 2009, available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/middle_east/article6969523.ece.

[284] 7 killed on Ashura Day: Tehran Prosecutor, Press TV, Dec. 29 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id =114882§ionid=351020101.

[285] Huviyat-i Yiki Digar az Shahidan-i Ashurayih Tehran Mushakhas Shud [Identity of Another Martyr of Tehran’s Ashura Was Discovered], Rah-e Sabz, Dec. 31, 2009, available at http://www.rahesabz.net/story/6810; Tashi’i Paykar-i Khaharzadihyih Mousavi Barguzar Shud [Funeral Procession for Mousavi’s Nephew Took Place], Kalameh, Dec. 30, 2009, available at http://www.kaleme.org/1388/10/09/klm-6999.

[286] Fishar-i Dastgah-i Amniyati bar Mujriyih Sida va Sima [Pressure of the Security Apparatus on the MC of IRIB], Rah-e Sabz, Jan. 2, 2010, available at http://www.rahesabz.net/story/mahin.

[287] Farmandihyih Niruyih Intizami: Khudru-i kih Ruz-i Ashura Mardum ra Zir Kard Duzdidih Shudih Bud! [Commander of the Law Enforcement: The Vehicle that Ran Over People on Ashura was Stolen!], Gooya News, Dec. 30, 2009, available at http://news.gooya.com/politics/archives/2009/12/098375.php.

[288] Bazdasht-i Shahidan-i Ayniyih Jinayat-i Khudruyih Niruyih Intizami dar Ashurayih Tehran [Arrest of the Eye Witnesses to the Criminal Acts Done by NAJA’s Trucks on Ashura in Tehran], Rah-e Sabz, Jan. 8, 2009, available at http://www.rahesabz.net/story/khodro.

[289] Vazir-i Ittila’t Bazdasht-i Atba’-i Khariji dar Ruz-i Ashura ra Ta’id Kard [Minister of Intelligence Confirmed the Arrest of Foreigners on Ashura], Rah-e Sabz, Jan. 4, 2009, available at http://www.rahesabz.net/story/iran9.

[290] Kardar-i Sifarat-i Su’id Bad az Ihraz-i Huviyat Azad Shud [Charge d’Affaires of the Swedish Embassy Was Released after Identity Was Verified], Fars News Agency, Jan, 10, 2009, available at http://www.farsnews.net/newstext.php?nn= 8810201288.

[291] Ejei az Idam-i 3 Nafar az Dastgir Shudigan-i Ashura Khabar Dad [Ejei Spoke of the Execution of Three of Ashura Arrestees], Rah-e Sabz, Jan. 1, 2010, available at http://www.rahesabz.net/story/ezheie.

[292] Vazir-i Kishvar: Ba’d az Ruz-i Ashura Iqtishashgaran Hukm-i Muharib ra Darand [Minister of Interior: After the Day of Ashura, the Rioters Are Deemed Muharib], IRNA, Jan. 5, 2009, available at http://www.irna.ir/View/FullStory/?NewsId=878674.

[293] Iranian Const., supra note 2, preamble. 

[294] Id.

[295] Id. art. 27.

[296] Id. art. 40.

[297] Id. art. 9.

[298] Article 10 of the Code of Activity of parties, Political and Trade Societies, and Islamic Societies or Those Belonging to other Recognized Religious Minorities, sets out the membership and responsibility for a commission that monitors the activities of groups. This Article 10 Commission has a code that sets out the process by which it regulates the groups for which it is responsible. The committee was formed in the Ministry of Intelligence with representatives from the General Prosecutor of Iran, the Supreme Judicial Council, the Ministry of the Interior, and two members of the Majlis.

[299] A’innamiyih Ijra’iyih Commission-i Asl-i Dah-i Qanun-i Fa’aliyat-i Ahzab [Procedural Code of the Commission of the Article 10 of the Law of Party Activities], (1360) [1981], art. 30. (Iran), available at http://iscanews.ir/fa/PrintableNewsItem.aspx?NewsItemID=312601 (last visited December 30, 2009) [hereinafter Article 10 Commission Procedural Code].

[300] Id. arts. 28-36. The Article 10 Commission Procedural Code does not include an appeals procedure.

[301] Id. art. 31.

[302] CRC, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child: Islamic Republic of Iran, ¶ 33, U.N. Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.123 (June 28, 2000), available at, http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/aadel.htm.

[303] Iran signed the ICCPR on April 4, 1968 and ratified the agreement on June 24, 1975 without reservations.

[304] International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, art. 21, March 23, 1976, 999 U.N.T.S. 171 [hereinafter ICCPR]. See also Universal Declaration on Human Rights, GA Res 217(III), UNGAOR, 3d Sess., UN Doc A/810 (1948), Article 20:(1) [hearinafter UDHR] (“Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association”); Organization of American States, Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, Bogotá, Colombia, 1948, Article XXI (“Every person has the right to assemble peaceably with others in a formal public meeting or an informal gathering, in connection with matters of common interest of any nature”); European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Article 11(1) (“Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests”); Organization of American States, American Convention on Human Rights, Article 15 (“Right of Assembly: The right of peaceful assembly, without arms, is recognized. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and necessary in a democratic society in the interest of national security, public safety or public order, or to protect public health or morals or the rights or freedom of others”).

[305] Kivenmaa v. Finland, Communication No. 412/1990, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/50/D/412/1990, ¶ 9.2 (March 21, 1994) available at, http://www.bayefsky.com/pdf/119_finlandvws412.pdf (Holding that a requirement to notify the police of an intended demonstration in a public place six hours before its commencement may be compatible with the permitted limitations laid down in article 21 of the Covenant).

[306] Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Kenya,   U.N. Doc. CCPR/CO/83/KEN, ¶ 23 (April 29, 2005) available at, http://www.universalhumanrightsindex.org/documents/825/725/document/en/pdf/text.pdf.

[307] See, Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: The Kyrgyz Republic,   U.N. Doc. CCPR/CO/69/KGZ, ¶ 22 (July 24, 2000) available at, http://www.universalhumanrightsindex.org/documents/825/431/document/en/pdf/text.pdf. See also, Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Kenya,   U.N. Doc. CCPR/CO/83/KEN, ¶ 23 (April 29, 2005) available at, http://www.universalhumanrightsindex.org/documents/825/725/document/en/pdf/text.pdf.

[308] Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee: Togo,   U.N. Doc. CCPR/CO/76/TGO, ¶ 18 (November 28, 2002) available at, http://www.universalhumanrightsindex.org/documents/825/583/document/en/pdf/text.pdf.

[309] Qanun-i Bikargiriyih Silah Tavasut-i Ma’murin-i Niruyih Musalah dar Mavarid-i Zaruri [Law for using arms by the armed forces in necessary situations] (1373) [1995], art. 4. (Iran).

[310] Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials art. 13., Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Havana, Cuba, Aug.27 – Sep. 7, 1990, Report prepared by the Secretariat, (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.91.IV.2), chap. I, sect. B.2, Annex, available at http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/firearms.htm

[311] Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, G.A. Res. 34/169, Annex, U.N. Doc. A/Res/34/169/Annex, art. 3 (December 17, 1979) available at, http://www.un.org/documents/instruments/docs_en.asp?year=1970.

[312] Id.

[313] IHRDC interview with M. (Aug. 17, 2009) (on file with IHRDC). There are literally hundreds of videos of the demonstrations that can be accessed online that show these peaceful processions. Here is one example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GVBZQCsqdjo

[314] IHRDC interview with Ebrahim Ali Mehtari (Dec. 3-4, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).  IHRDC interview with M. (Aug. 17, 2009) (on file with IHRDC). Furthermore, a number of individuals were stabbed to death during the post-election unrest.

[315] IHRDC interview with J.M. (December 4, 2009) (on file with IHRDC). IHRDC interview with H.S. (December 4, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[316] IHRDC interview with Maryam Amoozegar (November 10, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[317] Id.

[318] Interview with J.B. (Dec. 18, 2009) (on file with IHRDC). Interview with N.A. (Nov. 13, 2009) (on file with IHRDC). Iran Disputes Press Coverage of Day of Protests, Time, November 5, 2009, available at http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1934907,00.html. “Some demonstrators—by now seasoned veterans in confronting the police—counseled that applying cigarette smoke to the eyes eases burning sensations, as opposed to dousing the eyes with water. This led to odd moments where teenage boys were seen blowing smoke into the eyes of elderly women and vice versa.” Id.

[319] IHRDC interview with Maryam Sabri (December 3, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[320] Basij Interview, supra note 38.  

[321] Iranian Const., supra note 2, art. 22. UDHR, supra note 304, art. 3. ICCPR, supra note 304, art. 6. 

[322] Qanun-i Mujazat-i Islami [Islamic Penal Code] 1379 [2000], art. 205 (Iran) [hereinafter Iran Penal Code], available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/iraniancodes.htm.

[323] ICCPR, supra note 304, art. 6. 

[324] U.N. Human Rights Comm., General Comment No. 6, Article 6: The Right to Life, U.N. Doc. HRI/GEN/Rev.1 at 6, ¶ 1, (July 29, 1994), available at, http://www.un.org/Docs/journal/asp/ws.asp?m=HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1.

[325] Intikhabat va Havadis-i Bad az An bih Ravayat-i Farmandihyih Sipah-i Mohammad Rasul’ullah-i Tehran [Election and Its Aftermath as Told by the Commander of Mohammad Rasul’ullah Sepah Brigade of Tehran], Parleman News, Sept. 9, 2009, available at http://www.parlemannews.ir/index.aspx?n=3400. Amar-i Tazih va Mutafavit-i Yik Maqam-i Nizammiyih Iran az Qurbaniyan-i Khushunatha [New and Different Statistics of the Victims of Violence by an Iranian Law Enforcement Official], BBC Persian, Sept. 11, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/09/090910_si_violence_victims.shtml.

[326] See, Norooz List, supra note 85. Martyred and Murdered, Tehran Bureau, Aug. 1, 2009, available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/tehranbureau/2009/08/martyred-and-murdered.html.

[327] In Iran, list of 72 alleged post-vote victims rejected, Press TV, September 06, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=105430§ionid=351020101. Many consider Beheshti’s list to be the same as one published by Norooz News published on Friday, September 4, 2009. See, Norooz List, supra note 85.

[328] IHRDC interview with Roozbeh Mirebrahimi (Oct. 25, 2009).

[329]  The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court requires that to constitute a crime against humanity, the killings be (1) a widespread or systematic attack, (2) directed against a civilian population, (3) with knowledge on the part of the perpetrator of the nature of the attack. Rome Statute, supra note 61, art. 7;  See also, Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, Deadly Fatwa: Iran’s 1988 Prison Massacre, 60-61 (2009), available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/reports.htm.

[330] Iran Admits 4,000 June Detentions, BBC, Aug. 11, 2009, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/8195586.stm.

[331] Bayaniyih-i Mushtarak bar Alayhih Mowj-i Jadid-i Sarkub va Ikhtinaq [Joint Statement against the New Wave of Crushing and Suffocation], Asr-e Nou, July, 14, 2009, available at http://asre-nou.net/php/view.php?objnr=4617.

[332] Hamid Maddah Shourche az Aza’i Sitad-i Mousavi dar Mashhad Kushtih Shud [Hamid Maddah Shourche, a Member of Mousavi’s Campaign in Mashhad Was Killed], Gooya News, July 6, 2009, available at http://news.gooya.com/politics/archives/2009/07/090434.php; Ali Sheikholeslami, Iran Warns Western Meddling Will Have Negative Impact, Bloomberg, July 6, 2009, available at, http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601110&sid= aPGkuF4XOzJ8

[333] Ifshayih Huviyat-i Yiki Digar az Janbakhtigan-i Junbish-i Sabz: Amir Hossein Toufanpour [Exposing the Identity of Another Member of the Green Movement Who Lost his Life: Amir Hossein Toufanpour], Human Rights Activists News Agency, July 29, 2009, available at http://www.hra-news.org/news/PNews.aspx?request=2679; Martyred and Murdered, Tehran Bureau, Aug. 1, 2009, available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/tehranbureau/2009/08/martyred-and-murdered.html.

[334] Ifshayih Huviyat-i Yiki Digar az Janbakhtigan-i Junbish-i Sabz: Amir Hossein Toufanpour [Exposing the Identity of Another Member of the Green Movement Who Lost his Life: Amir Hossein Toufanpour], Human Rights Activists News Agency, July 29, 2009, available at http://www.hra-news.org/news/PNews.aspx?request=2679.

[335] See Interview of HRAI with Seyyed Ali Akbar Kheradnejad in Eyewitness Account of the Conditions in Evin and How Amir Javadifar Died, Human Rights Activists in Iran, Sept. 9, 2009, available at http://hra-iran.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&catid =66:304&id=1716:54657&Itemid=293 [hereinafter Kheradnejad Interview].

[336] Id.

[337] See infra Section 3.1.

[338] Kheradnejad Interview, supra note 335.

[339] Id.

[340] Hajji is a term used for individuals who have been on the Hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca and colloquially, a respected person or supervisor.

[341] Basij Interview, supra note 38.

[342] IHRDC interview with Maryam Sabri (December 3, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[343] Id.

[344] Id.

[345] Id.

[346] Id.

[347] Id.

[348] IHRDC interview with Ebrahim Ali Mehtari (Dec. 3-4, 2009)(on file with IHRDC).

[349] Id. Lavashak is a fruit snack often made of plum pulp. It is sold in sheets and its texture is similar to rough leather.

[350] Id.

[351] Id.

[352] Id.

[353]  Matn-i Kamil-i Guzarish-i Kumitihyih Vijihyih Majlis, Naqsh-i Qazi Mortazavi dar Havadis-i Kahrizak Rasman Ta’id Shud [Complete Text of the Special Report of the Majlis, Role of Judge Mortazavi in the Kahrizak Evens Was Officially Declared], Emruz, Jan. 10, 2009, available at http://www.emruznews.com/ShowItem.aspx?ID=27307&p=1 [hereinafter Special Majlis Report].

[354] Police Chief Announced: “Kahrizak” Detention Facility Will Be Renovated,” Rooz Online, Aug. 6, 2009, available at http://www.roozonline.com/english/news/newsitem/article/2009/august/06//kahrizak-detention-facility-will-be-renovated.html.

[355] More on Kahrizak, Pedestrian, Aug. 6, 2009, available at http://www.sidewalklyrics.com/?p=1127.

[356] Reza Yavari, The Bowels of Kahrizak, Inside Iran’s Most Infamous Prison, CounterPunch, Aug. 11, 2009, available at http://www.counterpunch.org/yavari08112009.html; see also Names of 140 Detainees at Kahrizak, Narratives of Prisoners from Iran’s Guantanamo, Rooz Online, Aug. 2, 2009, available at http://www.roozonline.com/english/news/newsitem/article/ 2009/august/02//narratives-of-prisoners-from-irans-guantanamo.html.

[357] Yiki az Nijatyaftigan dar Musahibih ba Rooz, dar Kahrizak Ab ra Milisidim [One of the Survivors in an Interview with Rooz, In Kahrizak we Licked Water], Rooz Online, July 29, 2009, available at http://www.roozonline.com/persian/ news/newsitem/article/2009/july/29//-7d123bfc2d.html.

[358] Martin Fletcher and special correspondent, Ahmadinejad’s Basij Run a Regime of Rape, Murder to Suppress Critics, The Australian, Sept. 19, 2009, available at, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/ahmadinejads-Basiji-run-a-regime-of-rape-murder-to-suppress-critics/story-e6frg6so-1225776888607.

[359] See Special Majlis Report, supra note 353.

[360] Robert F. Worth and Nazila Fathi, Ahmadinejad Seen as Increasingly Vulnerable Since Re-Election, New York Time, July 26, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/27/world/middleeast/27iran.html.

[361] See Special Majlis Report, supra note 353.

[362] Muhammad Kamrani, Yiki Digar az Kushtih Shudigan-i Dargirihayih Tehran [Mohammad Kamrani, Another Killed During Tehran’s Clashes], BBC Persian, July 20, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/07/090720_bd_ir88_kamrani_18tir.shtml.

[363] See Special Majlis Report, supra note 353.

[364] Mohsen Ruholamini bih Illat-i Bimari va Minanjit Namurdih Ast [Mohsen Ruholamini Did Not Die of Illness and Meningitis], BBC Persian, July 31, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/business/2009/08/090831_ir88_roholamini.shtmlShahid-i Mazlum, Yaddashti az Sardar Doctor Hossein Ala’i [The Meek Martyr, A Note Written by Dr. Hossein Ala’i], Rooznevestha (by Serajeddin Mirdamadi), July 24, 2009, available at http://www.roozneveshtha.com/2009/07/post_252.shtml; Niruhayih Sih Ganiyih Sepah bih Ravayat-i Farmandihyih Zaman-i Jang-i Niruyih Darya’iyih Sepah [Sepah Three-Branched Forces as Told by the Commander of the Sepah Naval Forces During the War], Tabnak, Sept. 16, 2008, available at http://www.tabnak.ir/fa/pages/?cid=18468.

[365] Shahid-i Mazlum, Yaddashti az Sardar Doctor Hossein Ala’i [The Meek Martyr, A Note Written by Dr. Hossein Ala’i], Rooznevestha (by Serajeddin Mirdamadi), July 24, 2009, available at http://www.roozneveshtha.com/2009/07/post_252.shtml.

[366] Id.

[367] IHRDC interview with M.I. (December 25, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[368] Bazdashtgah Kahrizak Ta’til Shudih Ast [Kahrizak Detention Center Is Closed], BBC Persian, July 28, 2009, available at  http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/07/090728_he_ir88_karizak.shtml; Zindaniyan-i Kahrizak bih Zindanhayih Karaj, Evin va Qizil Hisar Muntaqil Shudand [Kahrizak Prisoner were Transferred to Karaj, Evin and Qezel Hesar Prisons], ISNA, Aug. 20, 2009, available at http://isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1388879; Talash-i Mortazavi barayih Dur Shudan az Jaygah-i Mutaham-i Asli [Mortazavi’s Efforts to Distance Himself from Being the Prime Suspect], Mowj-i Sabz-i Azadi, Oct. 5, 2009, available at http://www.mowjcamp.ws/article/id/43341; Selected Headlines, Tehran Bureau, Oct. 6, 2009, available at  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/tehranbureau/2009/10/selected-headlines-38.html.

[369] Ahmadi Moqaddam: dar Ittifaqat-i Bazdashtgah-i Kahrizak Man ham Muqassiram [Ahmadi Moqaddam: I am also at Fault in the Kahrizak Detention Center’s Events], Aftab, Aug. 9, 2009, available at http://www.aftabnews.ir/vdcdoj0n.yt0fx6a22y.html; More on Kahrizak, Pedestrian, Aug. 6, 2009, available at http://www.sidewalklyrics.com/?p=1127.

[370] Kahrizak Prison Chief Dismissed, Arrested, Press TV, Aug. 10, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=103006§ionid=351020101 [hereinafter Prison Chief Dismissed]; More on Kahrizak, Pedestrian, Aug. 6, 2009, available at http://www.sidewalklyrics.com/?p=1127

[371] Ayatollah Montazeri: Ba Ta’tiliyih Yik Bazdashtgah Mardum ra Iqfal Nakunid [Ayatollah Montazeri: Don’t Delude People with the Closure of One Detention Center], Rah-e Sabz, July 29, 2009, available at http://www.rahesabz.net/story/103/.

[372] Ali Mottahari Ba Isharih bih Nakafi Budan-i Ta’tiliyih Kahrizak: Muqasirin dar Margha ra Mujazat Kunid [Ali Mottahari Pointed Out that Closure of Kahrizak Is not Enough: Punish those Responsible for the Deaths], Sarmayeh Newspaper, July 30, 2009, available at http://www.sarmayeh.net/ShowNews.php?52526; Reports of Prison Abuse and Deaths Anger Iranians, New York Time, July 29, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/29/world/middleeast/29iran.html?ref=t.

[373] Prison Chief Dismissed, supra note 370; Shirin Karimi, Police Deputy: Kahrizak Prison was a Minor Mistake, Rooz Online, Oct. 7, 2009, available at http://www.roozonline.com/english/news/newsitem/article/2009/october/07//kahrizak-prison-was-a-minor-mistake.html.

[374] Juz’iyat-i Hukm-i Ta’liq-i Sih Maqam-i Qaza’i [Details of Suspension Sentence of Three Judicial Officials], Parleman News, Nov. 8, 2009, available at http://www.parlemannews.ir/?n=5224.

[375] Prison Chief Dismissed, supra note 370.

[376] Kahrizak Yik Ishtibah-i Kuchak Bud [Kahrizak Was A Small Error], Rooz Online, Oct. 5, 2009, available at http://www.roozonline.com/persian/news/newsitem/article/2009/october/05//-c1721ec71b.html.

[377] Talash-i Mortazavi barayih Dur Shudan az Jaygah-i Mutaham-i Asli [Mortazavi’s Efforts to Distance Himself from Being the Prime Suspect], Mowj-i Sabz-i Azadi, Oct. 5, 2009, available at http://www.mowjcamp.ws/article/id/43341; Selected Headlines, Tehran Bureau, Oct. 6, 2009, available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/tehranbureau/2009/10/selected-headlines-38.html.

[378] Selected Headlines, Tehran Bureau, Oct. 6, 2009, available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/tehranbureau/2009/10/selected-headlines-38.html.

[379] See Saeed Mortazavi Mu’avin-i Dadsitan-i Kull-i Kishvar Shud [Saeed Mortazavi was appointed Deputy Prosecutor General of Iran], BBC Persian, Aug. 30, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/08/090830_mortazavi_appointment.shtml.

[380] Illat-i Marg-i Ruholamini Bimari va Minanjit Nabud, Juz’iyat-i Nazariyihyih Pizishki Qanuni [Ruholamini’s Cause of Death Was not Sickness or Meningitis, Details of the Medical Examiner’s File], Mehr News Agency, Aug. 31, 2009, available at http://www.mehrnews.com/fa/newsdetail.aspx?NewsID=939256; Selected Headlines, Tehran Bureau, Oct. 6, 2009, available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/tehranbureau/2009/10/selected-headlines-38.html.

[381] Ilat-i Marg: Shahadat dar Dadgah Alayhih Mujriman-i Asliyih Kahrizak [Cause of Death: Testifying in Court Against The real Culprits of Kahrizak], Mowj-i Sabz-i Azadi, Nov. 17, 2009, available at http://www.mowjcamp.com/article/id/65382 (last visited on Nov. 17, 2009).

[382] Ilat-i Marg: Shahadat dar Dadgah Alayhih Mujriman-i Asliyih Kahrizak [Cause of Death: Testifying in Court Against The real Culprits of Kahrizak], Mowj-i Sabz-i Azadi, Nov. 17, 2009, available at http://www.mowjcamp.com/article/id/65382 (last visited on Nov. 17, 2009); Suspicions Over ‘Heart Attack’ Death of Iranian Doctor Who Knew Too Much, The Times Online, Nov. 18, 2009, available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/middle_east/article6920788.ece.

[383] Id.

[384] Iran Detention Centre Doctor Commits Suicide: IRNA, Reuters, Nov. 18, 2009, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE5AH28X20091118.

[385] Kahrizak Doctor Died of Poisoning: Prosecutor, Press TV, Dec. 1, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=112582§ionid=351020101.

[386] Kahrizak Doctor Poisoned, New Revelations of Horrific Detention Facility, Rooz Online, Dec. 3, 2009, available at http://www.roozonline.com/english/news/newsitem/article/2009/december/03//new-revelations-of-horrific-detention-facility.html.

[387] Qatl-i Amd-i Hadd-i Aqal Sih Nafar dar Zindan-i Kahrizak Muhraz Shud [Intentional Murder of at Least Three People in Kahrizak Was Confirmed], Rouydad, Dec. 19, 2009, available at http://www.rouydadnews.com/pages/801.php.

[388] See Special Majlis Report, supra note 353.

[389] Id. 

[390] Id.

[391] Iran has several codes that protect the rights of arrested citizens. On May 5, 2004, a directive issued by the former head of the Judiciary, Ayatollah Shahroudi, was formally approved by the Majlis and confirmed by the Guardian Council, This Citizen Rights Law enumerated a host of safeguards already codified in Iran’s Constitution, the Criminal Code of Procedure (CCP), the State Prisons Organization (SPO) Law. See Iranian Const., supra note 2; Qanun-i A’yin-i Dadrisiyih Dadgahhayih Umumi va Inqilab dar Umur-i Kayfari [Criminal Procedure Code for Public and Revolutionary Courts] (1379) [2001], art. 104 (Iran), available at http://hoghoogh.online.fr/article.php3?id_article=67 [hereinafter Criminal Code of Procedure]. A’yin Namihyyih Ijra’iyih Sazman-i Zindanha va Iqdamat-i Ta’mini va Tarbiyatiyih Kishvar [Executive Procedure for the State Prisons and Security and Corrective Measures Organization] 1384 [adopted 1985, amended 2005], art. 1 (Iran), available at http://www.prisons.ir/index.php?Module=SMMPageMaster&SMMOp=View&PageId=27 [hereinafter SPO Law]. Qanun-i Ihtiram bih Azadihayih Mashru’ va Hifz-i Huquq-i Shahrvandi [Law Respecting Legitimate Freedoms and Protecting Citizen Rights] (1383) [2004], available at http://dadkhahi.blogsky.com/?PostId=218 [hereinafter Citizen Rights Law].

[392] Article 32 of the Constitution emphasizes that “[n]o one may be arrested except by the order and in accordance with the procedure laid down by law.” Iranian Const., supra note 2.

[393] Article 32 of the Constitution provides that “[i]n case of arrest, charges with the reasons for accusation must, without delay, be communicated and explained to the accused in writing, and a provisional dossier must be forwarded to the competent judicial authorities within a maximum of twenty-four hours so that the preliminaries to the trial can be completed as swiftly as possible.” The article also specifies that violators of the above provisions are “liable to punishment in accordance with the law.” Id. In addition, Articles 24, 129, and 192 of Iran’s Criminal Code of Procedure oblige the authorities to inform the accused of the charges and the reasons for such charges. Criminal Code of Procedure, supra note 391.

[394] Article 37 of the Constitution provides that defendants must be presumed innocent until their guilt has been established by a competent court. Iranian Const., supra note 2.  

[395] Citizen Rights Law, supra note 391, art. 5; SPO Law, supra note 391, arts. 180-97, 198-212 and 213-229.

[396] Criminal Code of Procedure, supra note 391, arts. 38, 42.

[397] The requirement to state the nature and cause of the allegation goes beyond mere statement of the charge. See id. arts. 37-39 (requiring the Judiciary to act based on evidence, conform to the rule of law, and be impartial during the investigation phase); see also id. art. 32 (allowing temporary arrests and detentions of suspects only when circumstantial evidence indicates that a crime has been committed and certain conditions are satisfied).

[398] Criminal Code of Procedure, supra note 391, art. 33.

[399] Id. art. 37.

[400] Article 575 of the Iran Penal Code provides that “judicial officials or other officers who, contrary to the law, take a person into custody, initiate criminal prosecutions or convict and sentence a person, are liable to a punishment of permanent dismissal from their judicial post and five years ban of serving in governmental positions.” Iran Penal Code, supra note 322.

[401] ICCPR, supra note 304, art. 9(2). Article 9(2) provides that “[a]nyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him.” The requirement to state the nature and cause of the allegation goes beyond mere statement of the charge; instead, it requires that the prosecutor provide not only the exact legal description of the offense but also the facts that gave rise to the charge.

[402] Id. art. 9(3). Article 9(3) provides that “anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release.”

[403] Id. art. 9(4). Victims of unlawful arrests are entitled to compensation. See id. art. 9(5).

[404] Id. art. 14(b).

[405] In addition to the right to counsel at trial, there is a right to counsel in the stages prior to trial, stemming from Article 14(3)(b). The HRC has stated unequivocally that “all persons who are arrested must immediately have access to counsel, be examined by a doctor without delay and be able to submit promptly an application to a judge to rule on the legality of the detention.”  Concluding Observations on Georgia, U.N. Doc. A/52/40 ¶ 254 (1997).  Presence of counsel is required to ensure that rights of accused persons are protected, that detainees are not ill-treated and that any confession obtained using impermissible methods is excluded.

[406] Article 10(1) of the ICCPR requires States to treat detainees “with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person.” ICCPR, supra note 304. 

[407] Id. art. 14(2); U.N. Human Rights Comm., General Comment No. 13, Article 14: Administration of Justice, U.N. Doc. HRI/GEN/Rev.1 at 14, ¶ 7, (July 29, 1994), available at, http://www.un.org/Docs/journal/asp/ws.asp?m=HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1, (setting the standard of proof at “guilty beyond a reasonable doubt”).

[408] The Secretary-General, Report of the Secretary-General on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran, ¶ 22, submitted in accordance with General Assembly resolution 63/191, U.N. Doc. A/64/357 (Sep. 23, 2009) available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/aadel.htm [hereinafter SG report]; Maziar Bahari, 118 Days, 12 Hours, 54 Minutes, Newsweek, November 21, 2009, available at http://www.newsweek.com /id/223862 [hereinafter 118 Days]. 

[409] Press Release, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, UN Human Rights Chief Concerned About Manner of Arrest, and Possible Use of Excessive Force in Iran (June 19, 2009), available at http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/ 0/B4FA7547DF8F001DC12575DA0031AFC6?opendocument.

[410] Chira Zeidabadi Azad Nashud [Why Wasn’t Zeidabadi Released], Advar News, Dec. 9, 2009, available at http://www.advarnews.biz/organization/10050.aspx.

[411] Iranian Const., supra note 2, art. 39.

[412] Citizen Rights Law, supra note 391, art. 6. 

[413] See SPO Law, supra note 391, arts. 110-19.

[414] Id. art. 175(4).

[415] Iranian Const., supra note 2, art. 38. Iran Penal Code, supra note 322, art. 578.

[416] Id.

[417] Id.

[418] Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, GA res. 39/46, annex, 39 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 197, UN Doc. A/39/51 (1984); 1465 UNTS 85, available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/ English/aadel.htm [hereinafter Convention Against Torture].

[419] See, e.g., UDHR, supra note 304; Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment, UN General Assembly, Principles 6, 33, resolution / adopted by the General Assembly, 9 December 1988. A/RES/43/173, available at http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3b00f219c.html; United Nations, Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, art. 44(3), 30 August 1955; approved by the Economic and Social Council, resolutions 663 C (XXIV) of 31 July 1957 and 2076 (LXII) of 13 May 1977 [hereinafter Standard Minimum Rules].

[420] ICCPR, supra note 304, art. 7.

[421] Id. art. 10.

[422] G.A. Res. 62/168, ¶ 2 (h), U.N. Doc. A/RES/62/168 (March 20, 2008) available at http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC /GEN/N07/473/85/PDF/N0747385.pdf?OpenElement.

[423] “Solitary confinement covers the generalized use of ‘incommunicado’ imprisonment. The Working Group, for the first time since its establishment, has been confronted with a strategy of widespread use of solitary confinement for its own sake and not for traditional disciplinary purposes, as the Group noted during its truncated visit to sector 209 of Evin prison. This is not a matter of a few punishment cells, as exist in all prisons, but what is a ‘prison within a prison,’ fitted out for the systematic, large-scale use of absolute solitary confinement, frequently for very long periods.” U.N. Econ. & Soc. Council [ECOSOC], Sub-Comm. on Human Rights, Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Addendum: Visit to the Islamic Republic of Iran, ¶ 54, U.N. E/CN.4/2004/3/Add.2 (June 27, 2003), available at  http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/aadel.htm.

[424] SG report, supra note 408, ¶ 53.

[425] Kheradnejad Interview, supra note 335.

[426] See Special Majlis Report, supra note 353.

[427] IHRDC interview with Maryam Sabri (December 3, 2009) (on file with IHRDC). IHRDC interview with Ebrahim Ali Mehtari (Dec. 3-4, 2009) (on file with IHRDC). See also, Esfandiar Poorgiv, Arrested, Beaten and Raped: an Iran Protestor’s Tale, The Guardian, July 1, 2009; and Letter from Mehdi Karroubi to Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani, Head of the Expediency Council (July 31, 2009) available at: http://enduringamerica.com/2009/08/10/iran-the-karroubi-letter-to-rafsanjani-on-abuse-of-detainees.

[428] IHRDC interview with Maryam Sabri (December 3, 2009) (on file with IHRDC). IHRDC interview with Ebrahim Ali Mehtari (Dec. 3-4, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[429] IHRDC interview with Maryam Sabri (December 3, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[430] IHRDC interview with Ebrahim Ali Mehtari (Dec. 3-4, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[431] See, e.g., SPO Law, supra note 391, art. 71 (requiring basic minimum shelter, including a bed, mattress, pillow, and blankets), art. 93 (requiring three courses of food a day), 95 (providing minimum standards regarding the type of food fed to prisoners and detainees), art. 96 (discussing the provision of necessary kitchen tools for prisoners and detainees), art. 104 (requiring regular cleaning and disinfecting of prisons and detention centers), art. 106 (requiring access to light and fresh air), art. 108 (addressing the availability of adequate hot water, restroom and shower facilities).

[432] IHRDC interview with Ebrahim Ali Mehtari (Dec. 3-4, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[433] Reza Yavari, Inside Iran’s Most Infamous Prison, CounterPunch, August 11, 2009, available at http://www.counterpunch.org/yavari08112009.html.

[434] Even if these individuals did not directly order or assist the commission of these crimes, they may still be charged with a criminal offence under the doctrine of superior responsibility if they failed to effectively supervise and prevent or punish violations by persons under their authority. For example, the ICTY found a prison camp commander guilty for acts committed by his subordinates of murder, torture, causing great suffering or serious injury, and inhumane acts. He was commander of the prison camp for approximately six months, yet he failed to prevent the abuses, even though he “was fully aware of the fact that the guards at the Celebici prison-camp were engaged in violations of international humanitarian law.” Prosecutor v. Delalic, et. al., “Celebici,” Case No. ICTY-96-21-T, Judgment, ¶ 770 (Nov. 16, 1998).

[435] See Rome Statute, supra note 61.

[436] Taeb was appointed the head of the Sepah’s intelligence unit.

[437] See International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearances, G.A. Res. 61/177, U.N. Doc. A/RES/61/177 (Dec. 20, 2006), available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/aadel.htm [hereinafter ICPAPED]; see also ECOSOC, Commission on Human Rights, Report of the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, ¶¶ 40-42, U.N. Doc E/CN.4/2005/65, at 14 (Dec. 23, 2004) available at http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?page= search&docid=42d66e400&skip=0&query=%22E/CN.4/2005/65%20%22. While only thirteen countries (of which Iran is not one) of the required twenty have ratified the Convention, it has only been open for signature since February 2, 2007. United Nations Treaty Collections, ICPAPED, Status available at http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src= TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-16&chapter=4&lang=en.

[438] ICPAPED, supra note 437, art. 2.

[439] Id. art. 24(1).

[440] Id. art. 24(2).

[441] Id. art. 24(3). Article 24 addresses concerns pointed out by an expert to the working group on enforced disappearances. The expert pointed out that there was a need to “precisely define the concept and the legal consequences of the right of family members of disappeared persons to the truth.” ECOSOC, Commission on Human Rights, Civil and Political Rights, Including Questions of: Disappearances and Summary Executions, ¶ 80, U.N Doc. E/CN.4/2002/71, at 34 (Jan. 8, 2002) (prepared by Manfred Nowak) available at http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?page=search&docid=3d6ce3c50& amp;skip=0&query=E/CN.4/2002/71.

[442] Protests Flare, supra note 34.

[443] Parvez Sharma, Memo from the Streets of Tehran, The Daily Beast, June 18, 2009, available at http://www.thedailybeast. com/blogs-and-stories/2009-06-18/memo-from-the-streets-of-tehran/.

[444] Sohrab Arabi: 19-Year-Old Student Killed, Iranian.com, July 11, 2009, available at http://www.iranian.com/main/2009/jul/ sohrab-arabi.

[445] Ann Harrison, Mourning Mothers Weep for Victims of Excessive Force in Iran, Amnesty International, July 20, 2009 available at http://livewire.amnesty.org/2009/07/20/mourning-mothers-weep-for-victims-of-excessive-force-in-iran/.

[446] Security Forces Attack Sohrab Arabi Residence and Tear Sohrab’s Pictures, Gooya News, December 24, 2009, available at http://persian2english.wordpress.com/2009/12/24/security-forces-attack-sohrab-arabi-residence-family-and-tore-down-sohrabs-pictures/.

[447] ‘Hasht Nafar’ dar Tehran Kushtih shudihand [“Eight people” have been killed in Tehran], BBC Persian, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/06/090616_he_ir88_killing_rally.shtml.

[448] Daftar-i Tahkim-i Vahdat: Haft Daneshju Kushtih Shudihand [The Office for Strengthening Unity: Seven Student Have Been Killed], BBC Persian, June 17, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/06/090616_si_ir88_tahkim_students.shtml

[449] Iran’s Supreme Leader Condones Violent Police Crackdown on Protestors, Amnesty International, June 19, 2009, available at http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/news/iran-supreme-leader-condones-violent-police-crackdown-on-protesters-20090619.

[450] Alireza Eftekhari Ruznamihnigar-i Sabiq-i Abrar dar 20 Khordad Kushtih Shudih Ast [Alireza Eftekhari, Former Reporter of Abrar Was Killed on 25 Khordad], Reporters Without Borders, July 30, 2009, available at http://www.rsf-persan.org/article16780.html.

[451] In 1998, enforced or forced disappearance of persons was recognized as a crime against humanity in the Rome Statute. Rome Statute, supra note 61, art. 7(1)(i). The Rome Statute’s definition of “enforced disappearance of persons” is similar to that in the newer ICPAPED. It also requires deprivation of a person’s freedom by a state or by persons acting with the authorization, support or acquiescence of a state, and the absence of information on the fate or whereabouts of such persons or refusal to acknowledge deprivation of freedom, thereby placing the person outside the protection of the law. Compare Rome Statute, supra note 61, art. 7(2)(i), with ICPAPED, supra note 437, art. 2. The Rome Statute requires that the perpetrator intends to remove the person from the “protection of the law for a prolonged period of time.”

[452] IHRDC interview with A.E. (Dec. 17, 2009) (on file with IHRDC); IHRDC interview with Maryam Amoozegar (November 10, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[453] IHRDC interview with K.H.S. (Dec. 19, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[454] Id.

[455] Id.

[456] Id. IHRDC interview with K.J.B. (Dec. 17, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[457] IHRDC interview with Maryam Amoozegar (November 10, 2009) (on file with IHRDC). Bazdasht-i Pegah Ahangarani, Bazigar-i Cinema [Arrest of Movie Actor Pegah Ahangarani] Gooya News, July 27, 2009, available at http://news.gooya.com/politics/archives/2009/07/091343.php

[458] IHRDC interview with Maryam Amoozegar (November 10, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[459] In Iran Court, Dissolution of Reform Fronts Is Sought, Press TV, Aug. 25, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=104441§ionid=351020101.

[460] See Etemad Newspaper interview with Alireza Beheshti in Pas az Intikhabat dar Guftugu ba Alireza Beheshti, ‘Qafilgir Shudim’ [After the Election, in an Interview With Alireza Beheshti ‘We Were Surprised’], Etemad, 31/05/1388 (Aug. 23, 2009), available at http://www.etemaad.ir/Released/88-05-31/166.htm.

[461]Id.

[462] In Iran Court, Dissolution of Reform Fronts Is Sought, Press TV, Aug. 25, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=104441§ionid=351020101.

[463] Somayeh Tohidloo va Mahsa Amrabadi Azad Shudand [Somayeh Tohidloo and Mahsa Amrabadi Were Released], Radio Farda, Aug. 24, 2009, available at http://www.radiofarda.com/content/f10_Tohidlou_Amrabadi_Released/1806462.html [hereinafter Tohidloo and Amrabadi Released].

[464] Id.

[465] Shiva Nazar Ahari Bazdasht Shud [Shiva Nazar Ahari Was Detained], Committee of Human Rights Reporters, June 24, 2009, available at http://chrr.us/spip.php?article4306.

[466] Namihyih Madar-i Shiva Nazar Ahari: Tanha Dilkhushiyih Man dar in Muddat in Bud Kih Tanha Nabudam [Letter of Shiva Nazar Ahari’s Mother: My Only Solace During This Time Is That I See I Am Not Alone], Change for Equality, July 21, 2009, available at http://www.sign4change.info/spip.php?article4339.

[467] Shiva Nazar Ahari Azad Shud [Shiva Nazar Ahari Was Released], Committee of Human Rights Reporters, Sept. 23, 2009, available at http://chrr.us/spip.php?article5876.

[468] Masoud Bastani bih Shish Sal Habs-i Ta’ziri Mahkum Shud [Masoud Bastani Sentenced to Six Years Discretionary Imprisonment], Kerman Nama, Oct. 19, 2009, available at http://www.kermannama.org/module-pagesetter-viewpub-tid-1-pid-2257.html; Tohidloo and Amrabadi Released, supra note 463; and Behzad Bashoo va Khalil Mirashrafi Bazdasht Shudand [Behzad Bashoo and Khalil Mirashrafi Were Arrested], Ham Miham, June 17, 2009, available at http://www.hammihannews.com/news/4782.

[469] Bashoo Azad Shud [Bashoo Was Released], No Andish, July 11, 2009, available at http://noandish.com/com.php?id=29375.

[470] Tohidloo and Amrabadi Released, supra note 463.

[471] Kayvan Samimi, Du Mah Bazdasht Bidun-i Marja’-i Pasukhgu [Kayvan Samimi, Two Months of Detention without a Responsible Authority], Radio Farda, Sept. 16, 2009, available at http://www.radiofarda.com/content/f2_postelection_detainees _Keivan_Samimi_lawyer_Evin/1823897.html.

[472] Kayvan Samimi Hamchinan Taht-i Fisharhayih Fiziki va Ravani Qarar Darad [Kayvan Samimi Continues to be Under Physical and Psychological Pressure], Committee of Human Rights Reporters, August 20, 2009, available at http://chrr.us/spip.php?article5150.

[473] Khabarha-i az Evin, Azar va Azyat-i Kayvan Samimi dar Band-i 209 [News From Evin, Harassing Kayvan Samimi in Ward 209], Mowj-i Sabz-i Azadi, Sept. 13, 2009, available at http://www.mowjcamp.com/article/id/29086 (last visited Nov. 12, 2009). Khabarha-i az Evin, Kayvan Samimi bad az Zarb va Shatm-i Shadid bih Bihdariyih Evin Muntaqil Shudih Ast [News From Evin, Kayvan Samimi Was Beaten So Severely He Was Taken to Evin Clinic], Mowj-i Sabz-i Azadi, Aug. 30, 2009, available at http://www.mowjcamp.com/article/id/23969.

[474] Kayvan Samimi, Du Mah Bazdasht Bidun-i Marja’-i Pasukhgu [Kayvan Samimi, Two Months of Detention without a Responsible Authority], Radio Farda, Sept. 16, 2009, available at http://www.radiofarda.com/content/f2_postelection _detainees_Keivan_Samimi_lawyer_Evin/1823897.html.

[475] Istimrar-i Bazdasht-i Kayvan Samimi Qayr-i Qanuni Ast [Continuing to Keep Kayvan Samimi in Detention is Illegal], Human Rights Activists News Agency, Oct. 28, 2009, available at http://www.hra-news.org/news/7974.aspx.

[476] Members of student groups under the umbrella of Daftar-e Tahkim-e Vahdat were continuously arrested and released. However, Members of the central Cadre have been imprisoned for months with little information about them available to their families. Many members of the alumni association, Advar-e Tahkim-e Vahdat, including Abdollah Momeni and Ahmad Zeidabadi have also been imprisoned for months, some since the election. See Bazdasht-1 210 Tan Danishjuyih Sabz-i Danishgah-i Azad-i Mashhad [Arrest of 210 Green Students of Mashhad Azad University], Rah-e Sabz, Jan. 1, 2009, available at http://www.rahesabz.net/print/6876; Ittila’iyih Daftar-e Tahkim-e Vahdat, Bazdasht-i 17 Tan az Fa’alan-i Danishju’i [Announcement of Daftar-e Tahkim-e Vahdat, Arrest of 17 Student Activists], Gooya News, Oct. 2, 2009, available at http://news.gooya.com/politics/archives/2009/10/094456.php; 15 Tan az Danishjuyan-i Bazdasht Shudih Azad Shudand [Fifteen of the Arrested Students Were Released], Iranian UK, Oct. 3, 2009, available at http://www.iranianuk.com/article.php?id=42301; Akharin Vaz’iyat-i Aza’i Shawrayih Markaziyih Daftar-e Tahkim-e Vahdat dar Zindan [Latest News Regarding the Imprisoned Members of the Central Cadre of Daftar-e Tahkim-e Vahdat], Advar News, Jan. 7, 2009, available at http://www.advarnews.us/university/10242.aspx; Bayaniyihyih Advar Tahkim Vahdat dar Itiraz bih Bazdasht-i Aza’i Khud [Statement of Advar-e Tahkim-e Vahdat in Protest to Detention of Its Members], Deutsche Welle, Nov. 21, 2009, available at http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,4914365,00.html.

[477] Student Activists Under Pressure in Iran, Radio Zamaaneh, Nov. 19, 2009, available at http://www.zamaaneh.com/enzam/2009/11/iran-student-activists-un.html.  

[478] Zeidabadi Duchar-i Junun Shudih Bud [Zeidabadi Had Gone Insane], Rooz Online, Aug. 19, 2009, available at http://www.roozonline.com/persian/interview/interview-item/article/2009/august/19//-8c4e67e213.html, (and a reprint by Advar News at Ifshagariyih Hamsar-i Ahmad Zeidabadi: Ahmad bih Hadd-i Junun Risidih va Qasd-i Khudkushi dar Zindan ra Dashtih Ast [Wife of Zeidabadi Revealed: Ahmad Has Gone Insane and Intended to Commit Suicide in Prison], Advar News, Aug. 19, 2009, available at http://www.advarnews.us/organization/9389.aspx.

[479] Namihyih Sargushadihyih Hamsar-i Zeidabadi Khatab bih Shahroudi [Open letter of Zeidabadi’s wife to Shahroudi], Gooya News, July 12, 2009, available at http://news.gooya.com/politics/archives/2009/07/090690.php.

[480] Vakunish-i Hamsar-i Zeidabadi bih Izharat-i Dadsitan: Ta Ahmad Ra Mulaghat Nakunam Nemitavanam bih in Harfha Itimad Kunam [Reaction of Zeidabadi’s Wife to the Comments of the Prosecutor: I Can’t Trust What I Hear Until I Visit Ahmad], Mizan Press, Oct. 28, 2009, available at http://74.125.95.132/search?q=cache:cxBX16Kp7EoJ:www.mizanpress.org/index.php %3Foption%3Dcom_content%26view%3Darticle%26id%3D6220:2009-10-27-22-10-30%26catid%3D6:2009-04-01-10-24-33%26Itemid%3D66+%D8%AF%D8%B3%D8%AA%DA%AF%DB%8C%D8%B1+; see also Guzarish-i Akharin Vaz’iyat-i Bazdasht Shudigan-i Havadis-i Bad az Intikhabat [Latest News of the Conditions of the Post Election Arrestee], BBC Persian, Oct. 27, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/10/091027_m_arrested_reports.shtml.

[481] Chira Zeidabadi Azad Nashud? [Why Wasn’t Zeidabadi Released?], Advar News, Dec. 9, 2009, available at http://www.advarnews.biz/organization/10050.aspx.

[482] Mahkumiyat-i Zeidabadi bih Shish Sal Habs va Tab’id dar Gonabad [Zeidabadi Sentenced to Six Years’ Imprisonment and Exile in Gonabad], Radio Farda, Nov. 23, 2009, available at http://www.radiofarda.com/content/F11_Iran_Postelection _Zeydabadi/1885960.html.

[483] Ahmad Zeidabadi bih 5 Sal Zindan dar Tab’id Mahkum Shud [Ahmad Zeidabadi Was Sentenced to 5 Years’ Imprisonment in Exile], Human Right Activists News Agency, Nov. 23, 2009, available at http://www.hra-news.org/news/9452.aspx.

[484] IHRDC interview with A.Y. (Dec. 19, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[485] Dastgiriyih Gustardihyih Fa’alan-i Siyasi dar Tehran [Widespread Arrest of Political Activists in Tehran], BBC Persian, June 14, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/06/090613_op_ir88_mosharekat_mojahedin_arrests.shtml; Sardar Radan: Dastgiriyih Mohammad Reza Khatami Sihhat Nadarad [Commander Radan: Arrest of Mohammad Reza Khatami Is Not True], ISNA, June 14, 2009, available at http://isna.ir/Isna/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1356087.

[486] Islamic Iran Participation Front is a reformist political party that was founded in 1998 after the election of President Khatami and was headed by the President’s brother, Mohammad-Reza Khatami. Bazdasht-i Dabir-i Kul va Ti’dadi az Aza’i Mosharekat [Detemtion of the Secretary General and Some of the Members of Participation Front], Aftab, June 13, 2009, available at http://aftabnews.ir/vdcbfzb9.rhbgfpiuur.html.

[487] Mohsen Mirdamadi: Defa’ az Taskhir-i Lanihyih Jasusi [Mohsen Mirdamadi: Defending the Storming of the Den of Spies], Aftab, Nov. 5, 2009, available at http://www.aftab.ir/news/2009/nov/05/c1c1257414831_politics_iran_ mohsen_mirdamadi.php.

[488] Asamiyih Namayandigan-i Radd-i Salahiyat Shudihyih Majlis-i Shishum [Representatives of the Sixth Majlis Who Were Not Deemed Competent], Mardomak, Feb. 18, 2008, available at http://www.mardomak.biz/news/vetted_six_majlis/.

[489] Mohsen Mirdamadi Bar-i Digar Bazdasht Shud [Mohsen Mirdamadi Was Arrested Again], Radio Farda, June 21, 2009, available at http://www.radiofarda.com/content/F8_MIRDAMADI_ARREST/1759160.html.

[490] Interview of Etemad with Zahra Mojaradi, Mirdamadi’s wife, ‘Ittihamat ra Qabul Nakardand’ [‘He Did Not Accept the Charges’], Etemad Newspaper, 21/7/1388 (October 13, 2009) available at http://www.etemaad.ir/Released/88-07-21/272.htm. She states, “He was initially arrested on the 23rd of Khordad [13th June] but released after 24 hours. Then, he was arrested again on the 30th of Khordad [June 20th] … we only heard that he was held in the Sepah Intelligence ward in Evin … His first contact with us was 40 days after his arrest and our first visit with him was around 60 days after his arrest.”

[491] Interview of Etemad with Zahra Mojaradi, Mirdamadi’s wife, ‘Ittihamat ra Qabul Nakardand’ [‘He Did Not Accept The Charges’], Etemad Newspaper, 21/7/1388 (October 13, 2009) available at http://www.etemaad.ir/Released/88-07-21/272.htm. See also Matn-i Kamil-i Kayfarkhast-i Muda’ialumum Alayhih Mutahamin-i Prujihyih Shikastkhurdihyih Kuditayih Makhmali [Complete Text of the Indictment of the Prosecutor General Against the Accused of the Failed Velvet Coup], Fars News Agency, Aug. 1, 2009, available at http://www.farsnews.net/newstext.php?nn=8805100944 [See www.iranhrdc.org for a paginated translation] [hereinafter First Indictment].

[492] Pisar-i Mohsen Mirdamadi Bazdasht Shud [Son of Mohsen Mirdamadi Was Arrested], BBC Persian, Sept. 17, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/09/090916_si_mirdamadi_arrest.shtml.

[493] Interview of Etemad with Zahra Mojaradi, Mirdamadi’s wife, ‘Ittihamat ra Qabul Nakardand’ [‘He Did Not Accept the Charges’], Etemad Newspaper, 21/7/1388 (October 13, 2009) available at http://www.etemaad.ir/Released/88-07-21/272.htm. Pustirha-i Barayih 13 Aban [Placards for 13 Aban Demonstration], Mowj-i Sabz-i Azadi, Oct. 20, 2009, available at http://www.mowjcamp.com/article/id/49827.

[494] Mohammad Sahimi, Reformist Strategist: Saeed Hajjarian, Frontline, July 8, 2009, available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/tehranbureau/2009/07/reformist-strategist-saeed-hajjarian.html.

[495] Iran: Release Disabled Reformist, Human Rights Watch, July 1, 2009, available at http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2009/07/01/iran-release-disabled-reformist.

[496] Id.

[497] Zindigiyih Mahsa Amrabadi, Khabanigar-i Bardar, va Saeed Hajjarian dar Khatar-i Jiddi Ast [Life of Mahsa Amrabadi, Pregnant Journalist, and Saeed Hajjarian Is Serious in Danger], Gooya News, July 7, 2009, available at http://news.gooya.com/politics/archives/2009/07/090458.php.

[498] Iran: Release Disabled Reformist, Human Rights Watch, July 1, 2009, available at http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2009/07/01/iran-release-disabled-reformist.

[499] Zindigiyih Mahsa Amrabadi, Khabanigar-i Bardar, va Saeed Hajjarian dar Khatar-i Jiddi Ast [Life of Mahsa Amrabadi, Pregnant Journalist, and Saeed Hajjarian Is Serious in Danger], Gooya News, July 7, 2009, available at http://news.gooya.com/politics/archives/2009/07/090458.php.

[500] For an interview with Kazem Jalali, see video file: Repertoire of the Commission for National Security, Kazem Jalali Interview, August 31, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4yFL4o2Azkk.

[501] Intiqal-i Hajjarian az Zindan bih Khanihyih Sazmani [Relocating Hajjarian to a Judiciary Housing], BBC Persian, July 30, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/07/090730_ra_hajjarian_housearrest.shtml.

[502] Dorri Najafabadi: Tawsiyihyih Ma Azadiyih Hajjarian Ast [Dorri Najafabadi: Our Recommendation Is Hajjarian’s Release], BBC Persian, Aug. 8, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/08/090808_ka_dori_hajarian.shtml.

[503] See Saeed Hajjarian Pas az 109 Ruz Bazdasht Azad Shud [Saeed Hajjarian Was Released After 109 Days of Detention], Radio Farda, Sept. 30, 2009, available at http://www.radiofarda.com/content/F8_HAJARIAN_FREED_postelection_ Ahmadinejad_Moosavi/1840150.html; see also Guzarish-i Ruzhayih Zindan bih Ra’is Jumhur-i Islahat [Reporting Prison Days to the President of Reform], Etemaad, 15/07/1388 (Oct. 7, 2009) available at http://www.etemaad.ir/Released/88-07-15/150.htm.

[504] Id’ahayih Karroubi dar Mawrid-i Vaz’iyat-i Bazdashtgahha Sidayih Hajjarian ra Ham Daravard [Karroubi’s Claim Regarding the Situation of the Detention Centers Made Even Hajjarian Talk], Fars News Agency, Sept. 3, 2009, available at http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=8806120733.

[505] Zaynab Hajjarian: Agar Namih Sihhat Darad Chira az Pidaram Bi Khabarim? [Zaynab Hajjarina: If the Letter Is True then Why Have We No News of My Father?], BBC Persian, Sept. 4, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/09/090903_wmj-hajjarian-letter.shtml.

[506] See Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, Crtl+Alt+Delete: Iran’s Response to the Internet (2009) and Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, Forced Confessions: Targeting Iran’s Cyber-Journalists (2009), available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/reports.htm.

[507] Jenny Booth, Martin Fletcher and Ella Flaye, Iran Regime Arrests Ailing Reformer Ebrahim Yazdi in Hospital Bed, Times Online, June 18, 2009, available at, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/middle_east/article6527580.ece.

[508] Itirafat-i Jalib-i Atrianfar dar Dadgah [Interesting Confessions of Atrianfar in Court], Tabnak, Aug. 1, 2009, available at http://www.tabnak.ir/fa/pages/?cid=57808. See also, Guzarish-i Kamil-i Izharat-i Abtahi va Atrianfar dar Kunfirans-i Matbuati va Jalasiyih Dadgah [Complete Report of Abtahi and Atrianfar’s Comments in Court], ISNA, Aug. 1, 2009, available at http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1379312; Izharat-i Atrianfar va Chahar Nafar az Bazdasht Shudigan-i Havadis-i Bad az Intikhabat dar Dadgah [Confessions of Atrianfar and Four other Detainees of Post-Election Unrest in court], ISNA, Aug. 1, 2009, available at http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1379336; Ibraz-i Rizayat-i Abtahi, Tajzadeh va Atrianfar az Vaz’iyat-i Khud [Abtahi, Tajzadeh and Atrianfar Expressed their Content Regarding their Conditions], ISNA, Aug. 14, 2009, available at http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1385706; Tawzihat-i Tajari Darbarihyih Didar-i ba Abtahi, Tajzadeh va Atrianfar [Tajari’s Explanations Regarding Visiting Abtahi, Tajzadeh and Atrianfar], ISNA, Aug. 13, 2009, available at http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1385519; Borujerdi dar Jam’i Khabarnigaran: Musahibiyih Matbuatiyih Atrianfar va Abtahi Vijigiyih Musbat-i Dadgah Bud [Borujerdi to the Reporters: Press Conference of Atrianfar and Abtahi Was the Positive Aspects of the Court], ISNA, Aug. 2, 2009, available at http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1379659; Borujerdi Pas az Didar ba Abtahi, Tajzadeh va Atrianfar: Anha az Barkhurd-i Bazjuha Izhar-i Rizayat Mikardand [Borujerdi after Meeting with Atrianfar, Tajzadeh and Abtahi: They Expressed Content Regarding the Interrogators Behavior], ISNA, Aug. 13, 2009, available at http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1385524.

[509] Abtahi, Hajjarian va Aminzadeh Bazdasht Shudand [Abtahi, Hajjarian and Aminzadeh Were Arrested], BBC Persian, June 16, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/06/090616_he_ir88_abtahi-arrest.shtml.

[510] Akharin Vaz’iyat-i Abtahi, Tajzadeh va Zeidabadi dar Guftugu ba Hamsran-i Anan [Latest Condition of Abtahi, Tajzadeh and Zeidabadi According to their Wives], ISNA, July 31, 2009, available at http://www.isna.ir/ISNA/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-1378604.

[511] Weblog Nivisi az Darun-i Zindan [Weblogging from Prison], Webneveshteha, Aug. 26, 2009, available at http://www.webneveshteha.com/WEBLOG/?id=2146310142.

[512] Video-i Kunfirans-i Khabari va Difa’ Mohammad Ali Abtahi va Atrianfar dar Dadgah [Video of Press Conference and Defense of Mohammad Ali Abtahi and Atrianfar in Court], Khandaniha, Aug. 2, 2009, available at  http://www.khandaniha.eu/items.php?id=810; Musahibihyih Muzhik-i 20:30 ba Abtahi va Atrianfar [20:30’s Comical Interview with Abtahi and Atrianfar], Gooya News, Aug. 2, 2009, available at http://news.gooya.com/politics/archives/2009/08/091621.php.

[513] Tabesh: Nimitavanim Nigaraniyih Khud ra az In Nahvih Muhakimih I’lam Nakunim [Tabesh: We Have to Express Our Concern Regarding this Type of Trial], Parleman News, Aug. 20, 2009, available at http://www.parlemannews.ir/index.aspx?n=2337.

[514] Ivan Watson, Reporter Held for 21 Days in Iranian Jails, CNN, July 9, 2009, available at http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/meast/07/09/iran.detained.journalist/.

[515] Id.

[516] Id.

[517] 118 Days, supra note 408.

[518] Maziar Bahari: Tajamu’at-i Qayr-i Qanuni Sutun-i Inqilabhayih Rangin Ast [Maziar Bahari: Illegal Gatherings Are the Pillars of Colored Revolutions], Islamic Republic Documentation Center, June 30 2009, available at http://www.irdc.ir/fa/content/7350/default.aspx; Dawr-i Taziyih Itirafat Dar Jumhuriyih Islami [New Wave of Confessions in IRI], BBC Persian, June 30, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/06/090630_alia_confessions.shtml.

[519] 118 Days, supra note 517.

[520] Id.

[521] Id.

[522] Id.

[523] Christopher Dickey, A Mother’s Lament, Newsweek, July 4, 2009, available at http://www.newsweek.com/id/205288.

[524] Ali Akbar Dareini, Maziar Bahari Released: Iran Frees Newsweek Reporter On Bail, Huffington Post, Oct. 17, 2009, available at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/10/17/maziar-bahari-released-ir_n_324859.html.

[525] Mottaki Ifsha Kard: Naqsh-i Ingilis dar Iqtishashat-i Akhir [Mottaki Exposes, the Role of Britain in the Recent Unrest], Jam-e Jam Online, June 21, 2009, available at http://www.jamejamonline.ir/newstext.aspx?newsnum=100910031269.

[526] Dastgiriyih Karkunan-i Iraniyih Sifarat-i Britannia dar Tehran [Arrest of the Iranian Employees of the British Embassy], BBC Persian, June 28, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/06/090628_sz_ir88_iran_britain_arrests.shtml; this is a longer version of the more familiar: “The sun never sets on the British Empire.”

[527] Panj Karmand-i Iraniyih Sifarat-i Britannia Azad Shudand [Five Iranian Employees of the British Embassy Were Released], BBC Persian, June 29, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/06/090629_he_ir88_british_embassy.shtml.

[528] Id.

[529] Although several Iranian news sources reported the release of three of the employees, all three were not officially released until July 6 when the British government confirmed the release of everyone but Hossein Rassam. See Iran Yik Karmand-i Digar-i Sifarat-i Britannia ra Azad Kard [Iran Released Another Employee of the British Embassy], BBC Persian, July 6, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/07/090706_aa_british_iran_arrest.shtml.

[530] ‘Azadiyih Sih Karmand-i Digar-i Sifarat-i Britannia [‘Release of Another Three Employees of the British Embassy’], BBC Persian, July 1, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/07/090701_wmj-ir88-after-election.shtml.

[531] Ayatollah Jannati: Karmandan-i Bazdashtiyih Sifarat-i Britannia dar Tehran Muhakimi Mishavand [Ayatollah Jannati: The Detained Employees of the British Embassy Will be Tried in Tehran], BBC Persian, July 3, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/07/090703_rs_ir88_jannati_uk.shtml.

[532] Britannia darbariyih Ittihamhayih Iran Tahqiq Mikunad [Britain Will Investigate the Accusations of Iran], BBC Persian, July 5, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/07/090704_wmj-ir88-after-election-uk-iran.shtml.

[533] Karmand-i Sifarat-i Britannia Azad Mishavad [Employee of British Embassy Will be Released], BBC Persian, July 16, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/07/090716_ba-ir88-rassam-release.shtml; Karmand-i Sifarat-i Britannia dar Tehran Azad Shud [Employee of the British Embassy in Tehran Was Released], BBC Persian, July 19, 2009, available at  http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/07/090719_pm_ir88_rassam_released.shtml.

[534] Itiraz-i Ittihadiyyih Urupa bih Mahkumiyat-i Tahlilgar-i Sifarat-i Britannia dar Tehran [Protest of the EU to the Sentencing of the Tehran British Embassy’s Commentator], BBC Persian, Oct. 23, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/10/091029_op_rassam_eu_reax.shtml

[535] Hushdar-i Ittihadiyyih Urupa bih Iran Darmurid-i Muhakimiyih Karmandan-i Sifarat Khanihha va Shahrvandan-i Urupa-i [Warning of the EU to Iran regarding Sentencing of the Embassy Employees and the European Citizens], BBC Persian, Aug. 9, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/08/090808_wkf-eu-iran-trial.shtml.

[536] Nicolas Sarkozy Khastar-i Azadiyih Clotilde Reiss Shud [Nicolas Sarkozy Requested the Release of Clotilde Reiss], Mowj-i Sabz-i Azadi, Aug. 9, 2009, available at http://www.mowjcamp.org/article/id/11588.

[537] Charles Bremmer, France Demands Release of Student Clotilde Reiss by Tehran, Times, July 7, 2009, available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article6656429.ece.

[538] French Teacher Back in Iran Court, al-Jazeera, Nov. 17, 2009, available at  http://english.aljazeera.net/news/ middleeast/2009/11/2009111716267279653.html.

[539] Kian Tajbakhsh Bazdasht Shud [Kian Tajbakhsh Was Detained], Radio Zamaneh, July 10, 2009, available at http://zamaaneh.com/news/2009/07/post_9669.html.

[540] Doctor Kian Tajbakhsh Zir-i Fisharhayih Jismi va Ravani [Dr. Kian Tajbakhsh Under Physical and Psychological Torture], Deutsche Welle, Aug. 8, 2009, available at http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,4547758,00.html.

[541] Tajbakhsh was also convicted of espionage. Vakil-i Kian Tajbakhsh: Dar Parvandih Hich Mustanad-i Jasusi Vujud Nadarad [Kian Tajbakhsh’s Attorney: There are No Documents of Espionage in the Case File], International Campaing for Human Rights in Iran, Dec. 11, 2009, available at http://persian.iranhumanrights.org/1388/09/tajbakhsh-charges/.

[542] Khabarha-i az Evin: Haq-i Tajdid-i Nazar Khahi az Kian Tajbakhsh Salb Shud [News from Evin, Kian Tajbakhsh Ripped Off of the right to Appeal], Mowj-i Sabz-i Azadi, Oct. 29, 2009, available at http://www.mowjcamp.com/article/id/53572; The group is run by Columbia Professor Gary Sick. Sick clarified his relationship and contact with Tajbakhsh after the sentence was announced: “I have been in meetings with President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad on four different occasions over the past three years. I have spent at least nine hours with him, much more than I ever spent with Kian. In my last meeting with Mr. Ahmadinejad, I told him that if he were simply a lowly academic, instead of the president of Iran, he would be subject to arrest upon his return to Iran for meeting with the roomful of U.S. academics and think tank representatives that he had assembled at his hotel. He scoffed at the idea. Now one of my colleagues, a lowly Iranian-American professor who was about to take up a position at my university, is being condemned to 15 years in prison because, among other things, he had contact with me.” Gary Sick, Inside Iran’s Intimidation Campaign, The Daily Beast, Oct. 25, 2009, available at http://www.cfr.org/publication/20525/daily_beast.html.

[543] No Evidence of Espionage in Tajbakhsh’s File, Lawyer Says, International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran, Dec. 14, 2009, available at http://www.iranhumanrights.org/2009/12/tajbakhsh-evidence/.

[544] IHRDC interview with Witness K.H.S. (Dec. 17, 2009) (on file with IHRDC).

[545] The Brothers of a Man Sentenced to Death in Election Trials Say He Was Deceived by Interrogators, Madyar Iran, October 13, 2009, available at http://www.madyariran.net/?p=2620

[546] See Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, Forced Confessions: Targeting Iran’s Cyber-Journalists (2009), and Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, Deadly Fatwa: Iran’s 1988 Prison Massacre (2009), available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/reports.htm.

[547] See Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, Crtl+Alt+Delete: Iran’s Response to the Internet (2009), and Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, Covert Terror: Iran’s Parallel Intelligence Apparatus (2009), available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/reports.htm.

[548] Id.

[549] See Rome Statute, supra note 61.

[550] Judiciary Chief Calls for Rulings on Detainees by August 3, Mehr News Agency, July 27, 2009, available at http://www.mehrnews.com/en/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=919450.

[551] Id.

[552] Robert F. Worth, Reports of Prison Abuse and Deaths Anger Iranians, New York Time, July 29, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/29/world/middleeast/29iran.html?_r=1&ref=t.

[553] First Indictment, supra note 491.

[554] Prosecutor Mortazavi was removed from his position by the newly appointed Head of the Judiciary Ayatollah Sadeq Larijani. He was later appointed as Deputy Prosecutor General of Iran.

[555] See Inqilab-i Makhmali ra dar Nutfih Khafih Mikunim [We Will Suffocate the Velvet Revolution in its Embryonic Stage], alarabiya, June 10, 2009, available at http://www.alarabiya.net/views/2009/06/10/75552.html, which quotes Yad’ullah Javani, Head of the Sepah’s political office as stating that the velvet revolution project “started for the first time in 1376 [1997] in Iran and ever since, there has been efforts to carry out scenarios using such examples [of Georgia] that have so far been unsuccessful.”

[556] First Indictment, supra note 491, at 10.

[557] See generally, First Indictment, supra note 491. 

[558] Id.

[559] 118 Days, supra note 408.

[560] Thomas Erdbrink and William Branigin, Iran Vows To Make Example of Arrestees, Washington Post, June 24, 2009, available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/23/AR2009062300155.html

[561] Hojjatolislam Seyyed Ahmad Khatami dar Khutbihhayih Namaz-i Jum’i Tehran: Hamih Bayad bih Qanun Tamkin Kunand [Hojjatolislam Seyyed Ahmad Khatami in the Friday Prayer Sermons of Tehran: Everyone Must Obey the Law], Jomhouri Eslami, 6/4/1388 (June 27, 2009) available at http://www.jomhourieslami.com/1388/13880406/

[562] Hashiyihha-i az Dadgah-i Mutahamin-i Parvandihyih Iqtishashat-i Pas az Intikhabat-i Riyasat-i Jumhuri [About the Court of Those Accused in the Case of the Post Presidential Election Unrest], IRNA, Aug. 1, 2009, available at http://www.irna.ir/View/FullStory/?NewsId=613700.

[563] Dadgah-i Mutahaman-i Siyasiyih Dastgirihayih Bad az Intikhabat Barguzar Shud, Ittiham: Inqilab-i Makhmali [The Trial of the Politically Accused in the post Election Arrestees Convened, Charge: Velvet Revolution], Ebtekar, 5/11/1388 (Aug. 2, 2009) available at http://www.ebtekarnews.com/EBTEKAR/News.aspx?NID=53083; Ittiham: Kuditayih Makhmali [Charge: Velvet Coup], Fararu, Aug. 1, 2009, available at http://www.fararu.com/vdccpoqi.2bq4o8laa2.html.

[564] For images and videos of the trials please visit IHRDC Current Events, Election 2009, available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/videos3.htm.

[565] First Indictment, supra note 491.

[566] Id. Gene Sharp’s manual detailing 198 forms of nonviolent action can be found here: http://aeinstein.org/organizations/org/198_methods-1.pdf

[567] Id. at 3-5.

[568] Id. at 4.

[569] Hossein Derakhshan has been under arrest since November 1, 2008. See Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, Crtl+Alt+Delete: Iran’s Response to the Internet (2009), available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/reports.htm and Quvviyih Qaza’iyih Iran Bazdasht-i Hossein Derakhshan ra Ta’id Kard [Hossein Derakhshan’s Arrest Confirmed by the Judiciary], BBC Persian, Dec. 30, 2008, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2008/12/081230_ag_jb_derakhshan.shtml. Recently his family decided to be more vocal about his arrest and his father wrote a letter to the news head of the Judiciary, Ayatollah Sadeq Larijani. See Namihyih Pidar-i Hossein Derakhshan bih Ra’is-i Quvihyih Qaza’iyih [Letter of Hossein Derakhshan’s Father to Head of the Judiciary], Iran-e Emrooz, Oct. 21 2009, available at http://www.news.iran-emrooz.net/index.php?/news1/19702.

[570] The prosecution and state media use various terms to describe this non-violent threat: soft over throw, velvet coup, velvet revolution, psychological warfare, etc.

[571] First Indictment, supra note 491, at 7.

[572] Id. at 12.

[573] Id. at 7-8.

[574] Id. at 8.

[575] Shadi Sadr Azad Shud [Shadi Sadr Was Released], BBC Persian, July 28, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/07/090726_m_shadi_sadr_released.shtml. Shadi Sadr, Barandihyih Lalihyih Hoquq-i Bashar-i Holland [Shadi Sadr Was Awarded the Dutch Tulip of Human Rights], Radio Zamaneh, Nov. 10, 2009, available at http://zamaaneh.com/special/2009/11/print_post_949.html.

[576] Shirin Ebadi: Dastgiriyih Khaharam Barayih Mutivaqif Kardan-i Man Ast [Shirin Ebadi: My Sister’s Arrest Is Meant to Stop Me], Rooz Online, Dec. 30, 2009, available at http://www.roozonline.com/persian/news/newsitem/article/2009/ december/30//-1a1bd83186.html.

[577] Ebadi az Tawqif-i Jayizihyih Nobel-i Khud Miguyad [Ebadi Speaks of her Nobel Prize’s Confiscation], RadioFarda, Nov. 27, 2009, available at http://www.radiofarda.com/content/F8_Ebadi_interview_nobel_prize_confiscated_byIran/1889453.html

[578] Mansour Osanlou bih 5 Sal Habs-i Ta’ziri Mahkum Shud [Mansour Osanlou Was Sentenced to 5 Years’ Discretionary Imprisonment], Norooz News, May 29, 2007, available at http://norooznews.info/news/349.php; First Indictment, supra note 491, at 8.

[579] Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, Covert Terror: Iran’s Parallel Intelligence Apparatus (2009), available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/reports.htm; First Indictment, supra note 491, at 8. 

[580] First Indictment, supra note 491, at 8.

[581] Id. at 9.

[582] Id. at 10.

[583] Id.

[584] Id. at 12.

[585] Id. at 13-14.

[586] Id. at 11.

[587] This evidence may have been presented in closed trial sessions, but IHRDC has not been able to find any published evidence.

[588] First Indictment, supra note 491, at 13.

[589] Id. at 14-15.

[590] Id. at 15-16.

[591] Id. at 16.

[592] Id. at 19.

[593] Id. at 17.

[594] Id. at 22-25.

[595] Id. at  25.

[596] Id.

[597] Id.

[598] Id.

[599] Id.

[600] Id. at  26.

[601] Id. at  29.

[602] Id.

[603] Id. at 31.

[604] Id.

[605] Hashiyihha-i az Dadgah-i Mutahamin-i Parvandihyih Iqtishashat-i Pas az Intikhabat-i Riyasat-i Jumhuri [About the Court of Those Accused in the Case of the Post Presidential Election Unrest], IRNA, Aug. 1, 2009, available at http://www.irna.ir/View/FullStory/?NewsId=613700, Ittiham: Kuditayih Makhmali [Charge: Velvet Coup], Fara Ru, Aug. 1, 2009, available at http://www.fararu.com/vdccpoqi.2bq4o8laa2.html, Iran Starts Trial of Election Protestors, Press TV, August 1, 2009, available at http://www.presstv.com/classic/detail.aspx?id=102172§ionid=351020101.

[606] Video File: IHRDC Current Events, Election 2009, available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/videos3.htm.

[607] Hashiyih Nigariyih Khabarnigar-i IRNA az Duvumin Jalasihyih Dadgah-i Mutahaman-i Iqtishashat-i Akhir [IRNA Reporter’s Side Not from the Second Court of the Accused from the Recent Unrest], IRNA, Aug. 8, 2009, available at http://www.irna.ir/View/FullStory/?NewsId=624703; for video of the second trial please see Video File: Show Trial of this Saturday, Aug. 8, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qx8vDh0_ROk.

[608] Id.

[609] Matn-i Kamil-i Kayfarkhast-i Duvumin Guruh az Mutahamin-i Prujiyih Kuditayih Makhmali [Complete Text of the Indictment of the Second Group of the Accused in the Velvet Revolution Case], Fars News Agency, Aug. 8, 2009, available at http://www.farsnews.net/newstext.php?nn=8805170594. For a paginated translation please see Appendix 2 [hereinafter Second Indictment].

[610] Id. at 2.

[611] Id. at 4-5.

[612] Id. at 16-17.

[613] Id. at 12-13.

[614] Id. at 12. She had taken pictures with her cell phone and emailed them to her friends, and she sent descriptions of the demonstrations to a French academic institution.

[615] Id. at 12.

[616] Id. at 18.

[617] The Freedom Movement is a banned but tolerated opposition party. The Committee to Defend Free, Healthy and Fair Election is an NGO established by members of Defenders of Human Rights Center, which is headed by Nobel laureate Shirin Ebadi. The Mojahedin-e Khalq or MEK is an armed opposition group. See infra note 684.

[618] Second Indictment, supra note 609, at 26.

[619] Sivumin Jalasihyih Dadgah-i Risidigi bih Ittihamat-i Mutahaman-i Parvandihyih Kuditayih Makhmali, Matn-i Kamil-i Kayfarkhast-i Guruhi az Mutahamin-i Iqtishashat-i Akhir [Third Court Session for the Accused in the Case File of Velvet Coup, Complete Text of the Indictment for a Group of the Accused in the Recent Unrest], Fars News Agency, Aug. 16, 2009, available at http://www.farsnews.net/newstext.php?nn=8805250449 [See www.iranhrdc.org for a paginated translation] [hereinafter Third Indictment].

[620] Hashiyihhayih Dadgah-i Sivvum-i Mutahaman bih Iqtishash [Side Notes of the Third Trial Session for those Accused of Riots], Raja News, Aug. 16, 2009, available at http://www.rajanews.com/detail.asp?id=34390.

[621] Third Indictment, supra note 619.

[622] Id.

[623] Id.  

[624] See for example an interview broadcast on Press TV with a member of the Majlis doubting the efficiency of the trials and the confessions on which they are based; Video File: PressTV: MP Critical of ‘Show Trial’ Refuses to Rule Out Torture Used on Defendants, Aug. 2, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y2YIVt0mlIA; and see also a video by comedian Ebrahin Nabavi satirizing the confession of Abtahi: Video File: Ali Abtahi Confession (Ebrahim Nabavi), Aug. 2, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jKPlnqDONY0&feature=related.

[625] Third Indictment, supra note 619.

[626] Hashiyihhayih Dadgah-i Sivvum-i Mutahaman-i Havadis-i Akhir [Side Notes of the Third Trial Session for the Accused of the Recent Events], Tabnak, Aug. 16, 2009, available at http://www.tabnak.ir/fa/pages/?cid=59893.

[627] Third Indictment, supra note 619; Hashiyihhayih Dadgah-i Sivvum-i Mutahaman-i Havadis-i Akhir [Side Notes of the Third Trial Session for the Accused of the Recent Events], Tabnak, Aug. 16, 2009, available at http://www.tabnak.ir/fa/pages/?cid=59893; Kayfarkhast-i Imruz Niz Pur az Ishtibah, Tanaquz va Idi’ahayih Ajib Bud, Gafhayih Sivumin Dadgah-i Namayishi [Today’s Indictment Was Riddled with Mistakes, Contradictions, and Strange Claims, Gaffes of the Third Show Trial], Mowj-i Sabz-i Azadi, Aug. 16, 2009, available at http://www.mowjcamp.com/article/id/18922.

[628] Id.

[629] Id.

[630] Id.

[631] Matn-i Kayfarkhast-i Dadgah-i Chaharum [Text of the Indictment of the Fourth Trial], Asr Iran, Aug. 25, 2009, available at http://www.asriran.com/fa/pages/?cid=82146.

[632] Chaharumin Jalasihyih Dadgah-i Risidigi bih Ittihamat-i Muttahaman-i Parvandihyih Kuditayih Makhmali – Matn-i Kamil-i Kayfarkhast-i Umumiyih Guruhi az Mutahaman-i Parvandihyih Kuditayih Makhmali [Fourth Court Session to Investigate the Charges of the Accused of the Velvet Revolution – Complete Text of the Indictment for a Group of Accused in the Velvet Coup Case File], Fars News Agency, Aug. 25, 2009, available at http://www.farsnews.net/newstext.php?nn=8806030283 [See www.iranhrdc.org for a paginated translation] [hereinafter Fourth Indictment] at 7.

[633] On page 10, the prosecution again notes that the Participation Front has, as part of its platform, the desire to use any national crisis to bring about more democratic policies. Again, the prosecution asks whether this could be anything but a betrayal of the nation. Id. at 10.

[634] Id. at 15.

[635] Id. at 21.

[636] Mashruh-i Kamil, Dar Chaharumin Dadgah-i Mutahaman-i Kuditayih Makhmali Matrah Shud: Naqsh-i Mehdi Hashemi va Jasbi dar Iqtishashat [Complete Text, Discussed in the Forth Trial Session of the Accused of the Velvet Coup: Role of Mehdi Hashemi and Jasbi in the Unrest], Yazd Farda, Aug. 25, 2009, available at http://www.yazdfarda.com/news/18777.html.

[637] Hashiyihha-i az Dadgah-i Mutahaman-i Havadis-i Akhir bih Ravayat-i ILNA [Side Notes of the Fifth Trial Session for the Accused of the Recent Events as Told by ILNA], Kaleme, Aug. 25, 2009, available at http://www.kaleme.org/1388/06/03/klm-43.

[638] Fourth Indictment, supra note 632.

[639] Mashruh-i Panjumin Jalasiyih Dadgah-i Mutahaman-i Iqtishashat-i Akhir [Details of the Fifth Trial Session for the Accused of the Recent Unrest], IRNA, Sept. 14, 2009, available at http://www.irna.ir/View/FullStory/?NewsId=681249 [hereinafter Fifth Trial Session]; Hashiyihhayih Jalib-i Panjumin Dadgah-i Mutahaman-i Havadis-i Akhir-i Tehran [Interesting Side Notes of the Fifth Trial Session of those Accused in Tehran’s Recent Events], Khedmat, Sept. 14, 2009, available at http://khedmat.ir/vdcbugb5prhb0.iur.html.

[640] Hashiyihhayih Jalib-i Panjumin Dadgah-i Mutahaman-i Havadis-i Akhir-i Tehran [Interesting Side Notes of the Fifth Trial Session of those Accused in Tehran’s Recent Events], Khedmat, Sept. 14, 2009, available at http://khedmat.ir/vdcbugb5prhb0 .iur.html; These organizations included Jomhouri Eslami, Iran, Jame-Jam, and Ettela’at.

[641] Fifth Trial Session, supra note 639.

[642] Id.

[643] Reza Derakhshi, Iran Holds Fifth Trial over Election Unrest, Reuters, Sept. 14, 2009, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE58D0VU20090914?feedType=RSS&feedName=Iran&virtualBrandChannel=10209.

[644] Kayfarkhast-i Mutahaman-i Interneti – 1, Tazakur-i Qanuniyih Ra’is-i Dadgah bih Risanihha / Darkhast-i Ra’fat-i Islami Barayih Mutahaman [Indictment for the Internet Accuse – 1, Legal Warning of the Head of the Court to the Press / Request of Islamic Kindness for the Accused], Mehr News Agency, Sept. 14, 2009, available at http://www.mehrnews.com /fa/NewsDetail.aspx?pr=s&query=کیفر%20خواست%20پنجم&NewsID=946913.

[645] Journalists Forced to Confess in Show Trials; Detainees Tortured, International Freedom of Expression Exchange, Sept. 23, 2009, available at http://www.ifex.org/iran/2009/09/23/trials_torture/.

[646] Hujum-i Niruyih Intizami bih Marasim-i Iftar dar Muqabil-i Zindan-i Evin [Law Enforcement Forces Attack the Iftar Ceremony in Front of Evin Prison], Rah-e Sabz, Sept. 2, 2009, available at http://www.rahesabz.net/story/1082/; Reza Derakhshi, Iran Holds Fifth Trial Over Election Unrest, Reuters, Sept. 14, 2009, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/ idUSTRE58D0VU20090914?feedType=RSS&feedName =Iran&virtualBrandChannel=10209.

[647] Fifth Trial Session, supra note 639.

[648] Ahmadinejad Calls for Prosecution of Opposition Leaders, Guardian, Aug. 28, 2009, available at http://www.guardian.co.uk /world/2009/aug/28/mahmoud-ahmadinejad-urges-opposition-prosecutions.

[649] Anahita Bijani, A Report on Political Prisoners in Iran, Gozaar, Dec. 3, 2009, available at  http://www.gozaar.org/template1.php?id=1385&language=english; Hukm-i Idam-i Yiki az Mu’tarizin bih Natijiyih Intikhabat dar Iran Sadir Shud [Execution Order Was Issued for One of the Protestors to Election Results in Iran], Deutsche Welle, Oct. 8, 2009, available at http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,4773758,00.html.

[650] Video File: Operative of Iranian Monarchist Group Confess to Terrorist Activities, Aug. 17, 2009, available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3uPOOgitWyg.

[651] Executions are not unusual in Iran. In numbers of executions, Iran ranks second only to China. Reported executions spiked alarmingly after the June elections. In the first six months of 2009, Iran executed 196 persons. In the fifty days following the election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, the government reported that at least another 115 executions took place, but that those executed were convicted of crimes such as drug smuggling or other serious crimes. Amnesty International, Iran: Alarming Spike in Executions Since Disputed Presidential Elections, Aug. 7, 2009, available at http://www.amnesty.org/en/for-media/press-releases/iran-alarming-spike-executions-disputed-presidential-election-20090807. However, this claim is impossible to verify as the names have never been released.

[652] Membership in the MEK is usually considered an act of waging war against God (or being Muharib), which is eligible for the death sentence.

[653] Sudur-i Hukm-i Idam barayih Sih Nafar az Mutahaman-i Havadis-i Pas az Intikhabat [Death Sentence Issued for Three of the Post Election Accused], Fars News Agency, Oct. 30, 2009, available at http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn= 8808060622.

[654] Hukm-i Avaliyih barayih Hajjarian: Panj Sal Habs-i Ta’liqi [Hajjarian’s Preliminary Sentence: Five Years’ Suspended Imprisonment], BBC Persian, Oct. 17, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/10/091017_op_ir88 _hajarian_sentenced.shtml; Sources close to Hajjarian’s family told BBC that the family was verbally informed of the sentence and that it has not been officially announced. A day later, Alireza Ava’i, Head of the Tehran Office of Ministry of Justice said that no sentence has been issued for Hajjarian as of then. See Ava’i: Takunun darbarihyih Hajjarian Ra’i Sadir Nashudih Ast [Ava’i: No Sentence Has So Far Been Issued for Hajjarian], IRNA, Oct. 18, 2009, available at http://www2.irna.ir/05/news/view/line-9/8807258522090411.htm. Hajjarian’s sentence was suspended in light of his disabilities.

[655] Nazila Fathi, Iranian-American Stunned by Sentence, New York Time, October 21, 2009, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/22/world/middleeast/22tehran.html?_r=1

[656] Abtahi bih Shish Sal Zindan Mahkum Shud [Abtahi Was Sentenced to Six Years’ Imprisonment], Ayande News, Nov. 21, 2009, available at http://www.ayandenews.com/news/15483/.

[657] Jenny Percival, Former Vice-President of Iran Sentenced Over Election Protests, Guardian, Nov. 22, 2009, available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/nov/22/mohammad-ali-abtahi-iran-protests-jailed.

[658] Ittila’iyih Dadgustari Kull-i Tehran darbariyih Parvandihyih Havadis-i Pas az Intikhabat [Announcement of the Ministry of Justice of Tehran Province Regarding the Case Files of the Post Election Events], ILNA, Nov. 17, 2009, available at http://www.ilna.ir/printable.aspx?ID=90437.

[659] Kambiz Norouzi bih Habs va Shallaq-i Ta’ziri Mahkum Shud [Kambiz Norouzi Was Sentenced to Imprisonment and Discretionary Lashes], Parleman News, Nov. 18, 2009, available at http://www.parlemannews.ir/index.aspx?n=5523; another example of a defendant being sentenced to lashes is Soheil Navid Yekta, a young demonstrator who was sentenced to seven years and 74 lashes. Mahkumiyat-i Navid Yekta bih 7 Sal Zindan va 74 Zarbih Shallaq [Navid Yekta Sentenced to 7 Years’ Imprisonment and 74 Lashes], Mowj-i Sabz-i Azadi, Nov. 11, 2009, available at http://mowjcamp.com/article/id/63474.

[660] Mahkumiyat-i Zeidabadi bih Shish Sal Habs va Tab’id dar Gonabad [Zeidabadi Sentenced to Six Years’ Imprisonment and Exile in Gonabad], Radio Farda, Nov. 23, 2009, available at http://www.radiofarda.com/content/F11_Iran_Postelection _Zeydabadi/1885960.html.

[661] I, Hamed Rouhinejad, Son of Mohammad Reza, Sentenced to Death, Want to Tell You My Story, Human Rights Activists in Iran, Oct. 15, 2009, available at http://hra-iran.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1904:45546&catid= 66:304&Itemid=293.

[662] Sudur-i Panjumin Hukm-i Idam barayih Mutahaman-i Itirazat-i Pas az Intikhabat / Guzarishi az Parvandihyih Reza Khademi [Fifth Execution Order was Issued for the Accused in the Post-Election Protests/A Report about Reza Khademi’s Case File], Committee of Human Rights Reporters, Nov. 15, 2009, available at http://chrr.us/spip.php?article6774

[663] Political Activist Sentenced to Death, Human Rights Activists in Iran, Dec. 2, 2009, available at http://hra-iran.net/index. php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2233:political-activist-sentenced-to-death&catid=66:304&Itemid=293; Rouhinejad was sentenced October 15, Khademi, November 16 and Porkar, November 28. 

[664] Article 232 of the Procedural Code of the Public and Revolutionary Courts in Criminal Cases says: “The decisions of public and Revolutionary Courts in Criminal Cases are final, other than in situations below, where they can be appealed:

a) crimes for which the legal punishment is execution or stoning.” See Criminal Code of Procedure, supra note 391, art. 232.

[665] Iranian Const., supra note 2, art. 35.

[666] Criminal Code of Procedure, supra note 391, arts. 128, 185-186; Citizen Rights Law, supra note 391, art. 3. “Judges and prosecutors are required to respect the right of the accused (or respondents) to defend themselves and provide them with opportunities to employ lawyers and experts.” Id

[667] ICCPR, supra note 304 art. 14(b). 

[668] U.N. Human Rights Comm., General Comment No. 32, Article 14: Right to equality before courts and tribunals and to a fair trial, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/GC/32 ¶ 38, (August 23, 2007), available at http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G07/437/71/PDF/G0743771.pdf?OpenElement.

[669] Muhakimiyih Bazdasht Shudigan-i Havadis-i Iran Aqaz Shud [Trial of those Arrested in Iran’s Clashes Began], BBC Persian, August 1, 2009, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/2009/08/090801_ba-rioters-trial.shtml.

[670] Arzyabi va Tahlil-i Huquqiyih Dadgah-i Mutahaman-i Rukhdadhayih Akhir [Evaluation and Analysis of the Trial of those Arrested in the Recent Events], Tabnak, August 2, 2009, available at http://www.tabnak.ir/fa/pages/?cid=58011.

[671] Barguzariyih Dadgah Bidun-i Ittila’i Vukalayih Mudafi’i Mutahaman [Trial Convened without Notifying the Defense Attorneys], Radio Zamaneh, August 8, 2009, available at http://zamaaneh.com/special/2009/08/post_845.html.

[672] The Brothers of a Man Sentenced to Death in Election Trials Say he Was Deceived by Interrogators, Madyar Iran, October 13, 2009, available at http://www.madyariran.net/?p=2620.

[673] See, Ervand Abrahamian, Tortured Confessions (1999).

[674] Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, Crtl+Alt+Delete: Iran’s Response to the Internet (2009), available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/reports.htm.

[675] See Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, Forced Confessions: Targeting Iran’s Cyber-Journalists (2009), available at http://iranhrdc.org/httpdocs/English/reports.htm.

[676] See Criminal Code of Procedure, supra note 391, art. 129.

[677] Bayaniyihyih Marja’i Aliqadr Hazrat-i Ayatollah al-Uzma Saanei dar Pay-i Barguzariyih Dadgahhayih Pas az Intikhabat-i Dahumin Dawrihyih Riyasat Jumhuri [Statement of the Esteemed Marja, Grand Ayatollah Saanei Regarding the Post Election Trials], Website of Ayatollah Saanei, August 5, 2009, available at http://saanei.org/?view=01,01,01,67,0; Fredrik Dahl, Mousavi’s Wife Says Brother Jailed in Iran Crackdown, Reuters, July 23, 2009, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-Iran/idUSTRE56M1TH20090723?s.

[678] Payam-i Ayatollah al-uzma Montazeri dar Itiraz bih Barguzariyih Dadgahhayih Farmayishi [Message of the Grand Ayatollah Montazeri in Protest to the Show Trials], Website of Ayatollah Montazeri, August 4, 2009, available at http://www. amontazeri.com/farsi/link.asp?Topic_ID=217.

[679] Maraji’-i taqlid (sin. marja’-i taqlid) are religious sources of emulation whom Shi’a Muslims follow. According to Center for Answering Religious Question: “Everyone who has come of the age of performing secondary religious duties (praying, fasting, charitable contribution, Islamic taxes, …) either themselves have reached the status of valid opinion and practicing jurisprudence or must emulate.” A person can be emulated who is a “man, of age, wise, twelver Shi’a, born into wedlock, alive, just,” and “most learned.” See, Sharayit-i Intikhab-i Marja-i Taqlid Chist? [What Are the Criterions to Select a Marja’-i Taqlid?], Center for Answering Religious Question, 19 December 2006, available at http://www.porsojoo.com/en/node/55143; and Bihtarin Marja-i Taqlid Kist va Chih Khususiyati Bayad Dashtih Bashad [Who is the Best Marja’i Taqlid and What Must be his Characteristics?], Center for Answering Religious Questions, 19 December 2006, available at http://www.porsojoo.com/en/node/56325.        

[680] Yousuf Saanei was appointed to the first Guardian Council as one of the six Islamic jurists by Ayatollah Khomeini on February 20, 1980, where he served for three years. On January 9, 1983, Khomeini appointed him Prosecutor General of Iran, a post he left in the summer of 1985. Inayat-i Hazrat-i Ayatollah Khomeini va Mas’uliyathayih Ijra’i [Biography: Kindness of Ayatollah Khomeini and Executive Positions], Website of Ayatollah Saanei, available at http://saanei.org/?view=01,01,14,7,0 (last visited Dec. 30, 2009). Ayatollah Montazeri reviewed the Constitution after it was written and was one of the forces behind the concept of the ‘guardianship of the jurist’ in the Constitution. See generally, Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri, Khatirat-i Ayatollah Montazeri, Majmu’iyyih Payvastha va Dastnivisha [Memoir of Ayatollah Montazeri, the Collection of Appendices and Handwritten Notes] (2001); see also, “Questions Regarding the Constitution” on Ayatollah Montazeri’s website available at http://www.amontazeri.com.

[681] Press Release, UN Experts, Iran: detainees subjected to torture and ill-treatment to extract confessions, warn UN Experts (August 13, 2009), available at http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/0/32F1022E3AE7B473C1257611004DFC95? opendocument.

[682] 118 Days, supra note 408.

[683] First Indictment, supra note 491, at 11-12. 

[684] The MEK began to be in conflict with the ruling clerics within months of the 1979 revolution. In the early years of the Islamic Republic, the MEK launched several devastating assassinations and terrorist operations, killing many high-ranking members of the Islamic Regime. During the Iran-Iraq war, the MEK joined forces with Saddam Hussein and attacked Iran in a few offensives. For more information, please see Ervand Abrahamian, The Iranian Mojahedin (1989).

[685] The Brothers of a Man Sentenced to Death in Election Trials Say He Was Deceived by Interrogators, Madyar Iran, October 13, 2009, available at http://www.madyariran.net/?p=2620.

[686] Pishdasti dar Itiraf [Pre-empting Confessions], Aug. 9, 2009, Etemad, available at http://www.etemaad.ir/released/88-05-18/150.htm

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