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Compilation prepared by the office of the high commissioner for human rights, in accordance with paragraph 15 (b) of the annex to human rights council resolution 5/1

          
          UNITED
          NATIONS A
          General As
          
          Distr.
          sembly GENERAL
          A/HRC/WG.6/7/IRN/2
          25 November 2009
          Original: ENGLISH
          HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL
          Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review
          Seventh session
          Geneva, 8-19 February 2010
          COMPILATION PREPARED BY THE OFFICE OF THE HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR
          HUMAN RIGHTS, IN ACCORDANCE WITH PARAGRAPH 15(B) OF THE ANNEX
          TO HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL RESOLUTION 5/1
          Islamic Republic of Iran
          The present report is a compilation of information contained in reports of treaty bodies, special
          procedures, including observations and comments by the State concerned, and other relevant official
          United Nations documents. It does not contain any opinions, views or suggestions on the part of the
          Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), other than those
          contained in public reports issued by OHCHR. It follows the structure of the general guidelines
          adopted by the Human Rights Council. Information included has been systematically referenced in
          endnotes. The report has been prepared taking into consideration the four-year periodicity of the first
          cycle of the review. In the absence of recent information, the latest available reports and documents
          have been taken into consideration, unless outdated. Since this report only compiles information
          contained in official United Nations documents, lack of information or focus on specific issues may
          be due to non-ratification of a treaty and/or to a low level of interaction or cooperation with
          international human rights mechanisms.
          GE.09-171 87
        
          
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          I. BACKGROUND AND FRAMEWORK
          A. Scope of international obligations 1
          Core universal human
          rights treaties 2
          Date of ratUication,
          accession or succession
          Declarations
          /reservations
          Recognition of spec ic competences of
          treaty bodies
          ICERD
          29 Aug. 1968
          None
          Individual complaints (art. 14): No
          ICESCR
          24 June 1975
          None
          -
          ICCPR
          24 June 1975
          None
          Inter-State complaints (art. 41): No
          CRC
          13 July 1994
          Yes, general
          -
          OP-CRC-SC
          26 Sep. 2007
          None
          -
          CRPD
          23 Oct. 2009
          None
          -
          Core treaties to which Iran is not a party: OP-ICESCR, ICCPR-OP 1, TCCPR-OP2, CEDAW, OP-CEDAW, CAT,
          OP-CAT, OP-CRC-AC, ICRMW, CRPD-OP, and CED.
          Other main relevant international instruments
          Rat /ication, accession or succession
          Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
          Yes
          Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
          Signature only 2000
          Palermo Protocol 3
          No
          RefUgees and stateless persons 4
          Yes, except 1954 and 1961 Conventions
          Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and Additional Protocols thereto 5
          Yes, except the Protocols
          ILO fUndamental conventions 6
          Yes, except No. 87, 98, 138
          UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education
          Yes
          1. In 2008, the Secretary-General noted that the Islamic Republic of Iran had a practice of
          entering general reservations upon signature or ratification, repeatedly cited by treaty bodies as
          impeding enjoyment of some human rights. 7 In 2005, the Commiftee on the Rights of the Child
          (CRC) cited the broad and imprecise nature of Iran's reservation, raising concern about
          compatibility with the object and purpose of CRC. 8
          2. The Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences
          recommended ratifying the Palermo Protocol and CEDAW without reservations and bringing
          relevant national laws into conformity. 9
          3. The Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants recommended ratifying ICRMW
          and harmonizing legislation and policies with it.'°
          4. CRC recommended ratifying OP-CRC-AC,” the Hague Convention on Protection of
          Children and Co-operation in respect of Intercountry Adoption of 199312 and International
          Labour Organization (ILO) Convention No. 138.'
          B. Constitutional and legislative framework
          5. The Secretary-General indicated that the 1979 Constitution guarantees a wide range of
          human rights and fundamental freedoms, but in practice there are serious impediments to their
          full protection and to the independent functioning of State institutions.' 4 In 2009, the United
          Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) noted the challenges for the judicial system in reconciling
          post-revolutionary Islamic principles with pre-existing laws.' 5 In 1993, the Human Rights
          Commiftee (HR Commiftee) noted the lack of transparency and predictability in the application
        
          
          A/HRC/WG.6/7/IRN/2
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          of Iranian domestic law, and that numerous limitations associated with the protection of religious
          values, as interpreted by the Iranian authorities, impeded enjoyment of some human rights.' 6
          6. The Secretary-General noted that to facilitate judicial enforcement of fundamental
          constitutional rights, the Government has developed complementary legislation on “citizens'
          rights”, given legal effect in 2008.'
          7. According to the Secretary-General, the Penal Code and the Code of Penal Procedure
          provide procedural guarantees aimed at ensurin* due process and fair trial rights. Some
          provisions fall short of international standards.' He noted reports that a revised penal code
          drafted in January 2008 contained provisions that would be incompatible with international
          standards, including an article on apostasy, making the death penalty mandatory for conversion
          from Islam.' 9 It also contained provisions for other forms of capital punishment, flogging and
          amputation. 20
          8. In 2009, UNICEF reported that a bill on the establishment of juvenile courts, submitted to
          parliament in 2005, was under review, and referred to related amendments to the penal code bill
          and Penal Procedure Code. A new child protection bill, considering child victims and witnesses
          of crime needing protection, was also before parliament. 2 '
          9. In November 2007, the Special Rapporteur on violence against women sent a
          communication regarding the family protection draft bill, allegedly reversing rights currently
          enjoyed by women, and reinforcing the unequal legal power of men within the family. 22
          10. The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) noted the enactment
          of legislation against incitement to, or acts of, racial discrimination, 23 but invited Iran to consider
          reviewing the definition of racial discrimination to bring it into conformity with article 1 of
          ICERD. 24
          C. Institutional and human rights infrastructure
          11. The Secretary-General noted that the Islamic Human Rights Commission, established in
          1996, is not recognized by the International Coordinating Committee of National Human Rights
          Institutions as complying with the Paris Principles. Iran has also established a human rights
          headquarters to facilitate international cooperation and coordinate Government bodies. 25
          12. The Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion
          and expression noted, as a major impediment to reform, the various institutional locks on
          governmental, parliamentary and judicial processes resulting from the control exercised by
          unelected institutions and bodies that are not accountable to the people. 26
          13. CRC recommended establishing a statutory, independent institution to determine priorities
          and monitor and evaluate progress in implementing CRC. 27
          D. Policy measures
          14. CRC recommended that Iran develop a comprehensive policy on children. 28 UNICEF
          reported that the first National Plan of Action on Violence against Children was developed in a
          broad consultation process. In 2008, the Ministry of Welfare took steps to include violence
          against children in the draft five-year National Development Plan. 29
        
          
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          II. PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS ON THE GROUND
          A. Cooperation with human rights mechanisms
          1. Cooperation with treaty bodies
          Latest report
          subm itted and
          Treaty body 3 ° considered
          Latest
          concluding
          observations Follow-up response Reporting status
          CERD 2002
          Combined 18th and 19th report due on
          Dec. 2003 - 2006, received in 2008
          CESCR -
          June 1993 - Second report received November 2009
          HR Committee -
          Aug. 1993 - Third report received October 2009
          CRC 2002
          Third and fourth combined reports due
          March2005 - 2010.
          OP-CRC-SC n/a
          n/a - Initial report due October 2009
          2.
          Cooperation with special procedures
          Standing invitation issued
          Yes
          Latest visits or mission reports
          Special Rapporteur on the right to freedom of opinion and expression
          (2003); ' Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Afghanistan
          (2002);32 Working Group on arbitrary detention (2003); Special Rapporteur
          on the human rights of migrants (2004); Special Rapporteur on violence
          against women (2005); Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a
          component of the right to an adequate standard of living, and on the right to
          non-discrimination in this context (2005)36
          Visits agreed upon in principle
          Working Group on enforced and involuntary disappearances (postponed,
          reminder in 2008); Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial summary or arbitrary
          executions (follow-up request sent in 2006); Special Rapporteur on freedom
          of religion or belief (latest reminder in 2008)
          Visits requested and not yet agreed
          upon
          Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading
          treatment or punishment (requested in 2005 and 2007); Special Rapporteur
          on the independence of judges and lawyers (requested in 2006); independent
          expert on minority issues (requested in 2008)
          Facilitation/cooperation during
          missions
          The Special Rapporteur on violence against women thanked the Government
          for facilitating her visit. 37
          Follow-up to visits
          -
          Responses to letters of allegations
          and urgent appeals
          During the period under review, 214 communications were sent concerning,
          inter alia, particular groups, including 192 women. The Government replied
          to 94, representing replies to 44 per cent of communications sent.
          Responses to questionnaires on
          thematic issues 38
          Iran responded to one of the 16 questionnaires sent by special procedures
          mandate holders, 39 within the deadlines. 40
          3. Cooperation with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
          15. The Secretary-General noted the visit of the High Commissioner to Iran in 2007 for a
          conference on human rights and cultural diversity, where she met senior Government
          representatives and discussed a range of concerns, including the death penalty (especially for
          juveniles) and women's rights. The authorities expressed interest in cooperation between the
          judiciary and OHCHR. 41 The 2007 Resident Coordinator report noted that the High
          Commissioner also met civil society representatives. 42
        
          
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          16. In May 2008, an OHCHR technical assessment mission visited Tehran to explore areas of
          cooperation. OHCHR suggested accepting a visit by the Special Rapporteur on the independence
          of judges and lawyers before the end of 20O9, and has been discussing possible activities with
          the judiciary, including conducting a judicial colloquium on fair trial issues. 44 Iran contributed
          financially to OHCHR in 2009.
          B. Implementation of international human rights obligations
          1. Equality and non-discrimination
          17. In 2008, the Secretary-General highlighted gender equality challenges in Iran, and penal
          and civil laws containing discriminatory provisions requiring urgent reform. 45 The HR
          Committee 46 and CESCR 47 observed that the persistence and extent of discrimination was
          incompatible with ICCPR and ICESCR. The HR Committee cited inter alia, punishment and
          harassment of women who do not conform to a strict dress code. 48 UNICEF highlighted the fact
          that landownership remained very low for women.
          18. Under Iranian law, provisions for compensation (diyah or blood money) for accidents and
          deaths put a double value on men's lives (and limbs) to those of women. 50 This was reviewed by
          parliament, and legislation proposed to recognize the equal value of women. 51 UNICEF noted
          that in 2008 a law passed parliament recognising women's entitlement to full coverage from
          insurance companies for accidents leading to injury or death and another law recognizing
          women's right to inherit land from deceased husbands. 52
          19. CRC expressed concern that children whose mother is Iranian and who marries a non-
          Iranian, without official Government consent, will not be recognized as Iranian nationals. The
          situation affects a large number of children who consequently have neither birth certificate nor
          nationality. 53 The Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants noted particularly that
          marriage between an Afghan man and an Iranian woman is not officially recognized and their
          children have no legal status because the Afghan man's presence is irregular. 54
          20. The Special Rapporteur on violence against women recommended, inter alia, special
          programmes for minority women who suffer multiple discrimination; and ensuring women's
          equal rights in entering marriage, during marriage and its dissolution. 55
          2. Right to life, liberty and security of the person
          21. The Secretary-General noted that the death penalty continued to be widely applied,
          including for juveniles. 56 The HR Committee recommended curtailing the number of offences
          punishable by death, avoiding public executions and providing the accused with all necessary
          guarantees, including a fair trial. 57
          22. The Secretary-General noted that in January 2008, the head of the judiciary issued a
          circular banning public executions and the publishing of related pictures. However, public
          executions were still reported. 58 He noted that public executions “have a dehumanizing effect on
          the victim and a brutalizing effect on witnesses.” 59
          23. The High Commissioner in 2007, 2008 and 2009 expressed her grave concern over
          executions ofjuveniles. 6 ° The Secretary-General noted in 2008 that the head of the judiciary
          reportedly established a non-binding moratorium on juvenile executions, 6 ' but UNICEF cited
        
          
          A/HRC/WG.6/7/IRN/2
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          trends of prolonging cases involving juvenile offenders until they reached 18 years when the risk
          of execution became higher. 62 The Secretary-General noted that reportedly, between 1990 and
          2006, 107 offenders under 18 were sentenced to death. The Iranian authorities disputed those
          figures. 63
          24. The High Commissioner stressed that it was the state's responsibility to stop juvenile
          executions, not a family's prerogative. 64 The Secretary-General in 2008 observed that it was
          understood that the bill on the establishment of juvenile courts would not abolish the death
          penalty for those under 18 nor formally raise the age of criminal responsibility. 65 The High
          Commissioner highlighted the fact that the bill provided a valuable opportunity to end juvenile
          executions. 66
          25. In 2006, the Special Rapporteur on violence against women cited with concern numerous
          reports of women on death row, noting there were 397 women in Evin Prison, 200 of whom were
          sentenced for “moral crimes”. 67 In 2008, three Special Rapporteurs sent a communication
          regarding eight women and a man sentenced to death by stoning for adultery. In its response, the
          Government stated that Islam attributed great importance to safeguarding the security and
          morality of society. 68 In 2009, a communication was sent regarding several other such cases. 69
          26. The Secretary-General in 2008 noted reports of amputation, flogging, suspicious deaths
          and suicides of prisoners, 70 justified by the authorities as Islamic punishments. 1 It was also
          reported that those accused of homosexual acts were routinely flogged and threatened with
          execution. 72 CRC expressed similar concerns regarding offenders under the age of 1
          27. Since its establishment in 1980, the Working Group on enforced or involuntary
          disappearances has transmitted 532 cases to the Government, of which 515 remained
          outstanding. 74 It called for measures to prevent further cases, investigate all outstanding cases
          and bring perpetrators to justice. 75
          28. In protests after the 2009 presidential elections, six special procedures mandate holders
          noted that at least 20 people were killed and hundreds seriously injured in clashes with security
          forces who allegedly used live ammunition and rubber bullets. Independent investigations had
          yet to be carried out. 76 The High Commissioner also expressed concern about reports of
          increasing arrests, which may not conform with the law, and the possible illegal use of excessive
          force, particularly by the Basij militia.
          29. The six mandate holders noted reports that the majority of those arrested were detained at
          Evin and held incommunicado without charge or access to legal representation, raising concerns
          about the risk of enforced disappearances. 78 They reiterated grave concerns about reports of
          killings, ongoing arrests, use of excessive police force and ill-treatment of detainees. 79 In
          October 2009, the High Commissioner raised concerns about three people sentenced to death
          following the elections. 8 °
          30. The Special Rapporteur on violence against women indicated that the Constitution forbids
          torture. The Secretary-General noted however that the Penal Code did not clearly define it as a
          criminal offence, and that CAT was approved by Parliament in 2002, but rejected by the
          Guardian Council, reportedly because of perceived conflicts with Islamic principles. 81 Three
          mandate holders expressed serious concern over reports of detainees subjected to torture and
          harsh interrogations to obtain confessions used in trials at the Revolutionary Court. Reports of
        
          
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          deaths in custody continue. 82 The HR Committee recommended improving conditions of
          detention. 83
          31. During the period under review, 211 communications were sent, some jointly by a number
          of special procedures mandate holders. Issues raised included cases of men and women,
          intellectuals, students, artists, human rights defenders and activists, lawyers, religious or ethnic
          minorities, unionists, journalists, detained and arrested, in most cases, by the Ministry of
          Intelligence. Communications indicated that the great majority were taken to undisclosed
          locations, some for interrogation, and later transferred to places of detention where they were
          held incommunicado for long periods, facilitating perpetration of torture. Detainees were denied
          medical treatment, and sentenced on grounds like “endangering national security”, “acting to
          disturb internal state security by establishing links with hostile opposition groups and foreign
          countries”, and “publication of lies”. Sentences included, inter alia, several years of detention,
          physical punishment, financial sanctions and capital punishment. 84
          32. The Secretary-General noted that gender-based violence was widespread. 85 The Special
          Rapporteur on violence against women highlighted that it was rarely acknowledged as a serious
          problem by authorities and rarely reported by victims. She noted some self-immolation cases
          linked to lack of legal protection for women victims of violence, lack of shelters, difficulty in
          obtaining divorce, child custody laws favouring the father and pervasive gender discrimination. 86
          Some incidents were said to relate to honour crimes. 87
          33. The Special Rapporteur recommended that the Government enhance women's access to
          justice; prioritize the elimination of violence against women as a public policy issue to prevent,
          investigate and punish all such acts; and promote and support the empowerment of women. 88
          34. CRC reiterated its serious concern at the Penal Code provision that fathers who kill their
          child, or their son's child, are only required to pay one-third of the blood money to the mother,
          and are subjected to discretionary punishment, if the mother makes a formal complaint. 89 It was
          also concerned about legislation providing for corporal punishment within the family, and that
          certain forms of sexual abuse of children or grandchildren were not explicitly prohibited. 9 °
          35. CRC was concerned about the large number of children living in prisons with their
          mothers, their living conditions and the regulation of their care if they are separated from their
          mothers . 9 '
          36. The Working Group on arbitrary detention raised concerns over the widespread use of
          solitary confinement for its own sake and not for disciplinary purposes. 92
          37. The Special Rapporteur on violence against women cited reports indicating a worrying
          increase in trafficking of girls and women, mostly in the eastern provinces where women are
          kidnapped, bought or entered into temporary marriage to be sold into sexual slavery. CRC
          echoed concerns over trafficking facilitated by temporary marriages or siqeh - which last from 1
          hour to 99 years. 94 In 2009, the ILO Committee of Experts requested Iran to ensure that children
          under 18, particularly young girls, are prevented from engaging in trafficking for commercial
          sexual and labour exploitation. It requested immediate measures to ensure that the use,
          procuring or offering of children for prostitution or the production of pornography or
          pornographic performances are urgently prohibited. 96
        
          
          A/HRC/WG.6/7/IRN/2
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          38. CRC continued to be concerned about the large number of children living and/or working
          on the streets. 97 The ILO Committee of Experts noted that the prospect of forced early marriages
          was reportedly one of the underlying causes of the recent phenomenon of runaway girls. 98 It
          remarked that street children were particularly exposed to the worst forms of child labour. “
          3. Administration of justice and the rule of law
          39. The HR Committee recommended that legislation and practice be brought into line with
          the right to a fair trial, including the assistance of counsel, the right to be brought promptly
          before a judge and tried in public. Urgent consideration should be given to abolition of
          revolutionaiy 10 ° and religious courts, also recommended by the Working Group on arbitrary
          detention. 101
          40. Three Special Rapporteurs called attention to the case of ten men sentenced to death after a
          secret trial in Khuzestan, reporting irregularities in the legal process and treatment of their
          lawyers. Convictions were reportedly based on confessions extorted under torture. 102 The
          Working Group on arbitrary detention also noted that the immunity of counsel pleading cases
          and access to legal aid must be reaffirmed in law. 103 The Secretary-General noted the concern of
          the Iranian Bar Association over new legislation establishing a parallel system for the issuance of
          attorney licencesH'° 4
          41. The Special Rapporteur on violence against women recommended, inter alia, ensuring that
          punishments do not discriminate against women and are proportionate to the offence; instituting
          proper investigation procedures for rape cases; ensuring victims are not subject to prosecution
          for adultery where unable to prove rape; and abolishing requirements that women present
          eyewitnesses to prove violence. 105
          42. The Secretary-General, the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, 106 CRC 107 and
          UNICEF 108 noted that the age for criminal responsibility was set at 14 years and 7 months (15
          lunar years) for boys and 8 years and 9 months (9 lunar years) for girls. Children who commit
          serious crimes could be processed as adults under the Penal Code. 109
          43. CRC remained concerned at the poor quality of the juvenile justice system. 11 ° The
          Secretary-General in 2008 noted that the bill on the establishment ofjuvenile courts, welcomed
          by CRC, 111 promotes restorative justice, community-based solutions and alternatives to criminal
          sentences. 112
          4. Right to marriage and family life
          44. CRC regretted that in all actions or decision-making relating to children, the principle of
          the best interests of the child was not a primary consideration. 113 The Special Rapporteur on
          violence against women noted that because child custody laws favour men, women frequently
          feel no choice but to remain in a relationship with a violent partner.' 14 CRC was concerned at
          insufficient information on discrimination against and stigmatization of children born out of
          wedlock. 115
          45. CRC noted the increase in the age of marriage for girls from 9 to 13 years (15 for boys)
          and was seriously concerned at the very low minimum ages. CRC urged Iran to set the age of
          majority at 18 years. 117
        
          
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          5. Freedom of movement
          46. The Special Rapporteur on violence against women noted that, as the exclusive head of the
          family, the husband has the right to control his wife's freedom of movement and behaviour in
          many situations. She must show his notarized approval to obtain a passport and travel abroad. 118
          6. Freedom of religion or belief, expression, association and peaceful assembly,
          and right to participate in public and political life
          47. The HR Committee emphasized that recognition of a State religion should not result in
          impairment of rights nor in discrimination against adherents of other religions or non-
          believers.” 9 CRC noted that members of unrecognized religions continued to be discriminated
          against. It was concerned at reports that they, particularly the Bahá'Is, are subjected to
          harassment, intimidation and imprisonment.' 20 The Special Rapporteur on adequate housing
          expressed similar concerns.
          48. The HR Committee expressed concern at the extent of the limitations on freedom of
          religion, noting that conversion from Islam is punishable.' 22
          49. In 2006, the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief expressed concern at the
          deteriorating situation for religious minorities.' 23 In 2006, six mandate holders' 24 raised
          concerns that 173 Nematollah Sufi Muslims were allegedly arrested, interrogated and tortured to
          force them to sign false confessions stating that their protest was linked to anti-Government
          groups. 125
          50. The Secretary-General noted reports about Bahá'is subjected to arbitrary detention, false
          imprisonment, confiscation and destruction of property, citing a significant increase in violence
          targeting Bahá'is, including torture or ill-treatment in custody.' 26 In 2009, two mandate holders
          noted that application forms for technical and vocational institutes contained a required
          declaration of religion limited to the four recognized faiths. University officials stated that
          “according to new guidelines”, Bahá'is were not allowed to pursue higher education.' 27
          51. The Special Rapporteur on the right to freedom of opinion and expression noted that as a
          result of repressive legislation and perception of a repressive culture within the judiciary, there is
          in practice, systematic repression of any expression in the press criticizing the establishment,
          particularly religious authorities, or calling for reform.' 28 The Special Rapporteur urged repeal of
          all criminal provisions dealing with peaceful expression, that these offences be excluded from
          the competence of the revolutionary courts and that clauses limiting the exercise of this right be
          clearly defined in law.' 29 He was also concerned at the situation of writers and artists subjected
          to censorship, as all works of art must obtain prior authorization from the Ministry of Islamic
          Guidance and Culture' 3 °
          52. The Secretary-General noted in 2008 that some women's rights activists were indicted on
          national security grounds owing to their weblogs.' 3 ' He remarked that after the 2009 elections,
          independent media experienced tightened restrictions, with publications suspended and websites
          blocked. Authorities imposed restrictions on mobile phone messaging and social networking
          websites.' 32
        
          
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          53. The HR Committee was concerned that members of political parties in disagreement with
          what the authorities believe to be Islamic thinking, or expressing opinions in opposition to
          official positions, have been discriminated against. 133
          54. In 2007, the Special Rapporteurs on violence against women, on the right to freedom of
          opinion and expression and on human rights defenders noted that Iranian women and men who
          peacefully demonstrated or stood up for gender equality and women's rights had been arrested or
          attacked on several occasions .' 34 The mandate holders cited people active in the “One Million
          Signatures Demanding Changes to Discriminatory Laws” campaign, a grass-roots movement
          promoting gender equality, as particularly targeted.' 35
          55. In January 2009, the Secretary-General expressed concern about reports that Nobel Peace
          Prize laureate Shirin Ebadi was threatened,' 36 citing an increase in human rights violations
          targeting women, university students, teachers, workers and other activist groups, particularly
          after the elections.' 37
          56. In 2009, the High Commissioner stated that the elections and subsequent protests were a
          reminder of the vitality of Iran's civil society, but also of the towering constraints peaceful
          activism faced.' 38 CRC and CERD urged the Government to continue strengthening cooperation
          with NGOs.' 39
          57. UNICEF noted that during the March 2008 parliamentary elections, the percentage of
          women in parliament dropped from 4.1 in the previous term to 2.8.140 The Secretary-General' 4 '
          and the Special Rapporteur on violence against women 142 noted women's limited participation in
          governance and decision-making.' 43 The HR Committee and CESCR noted that women were not
          permitted to become magistrates.' 44
          7. Right to work and to just and favourable conditions of work
          58. CRC remained concerned at the number of children below 15, particularly in rural areas,
          involved in child labour, especially in the informal sector. It noted that the Labour Code sets the
          minimum employment age at 15, but the Agricultural Code at 12.145
          59. According to the Secretary-General, unemployment among women was especially acute,
          noting' 46 their limited participation in wage labour outside the agricultural sector. In 2009, the
          ILO Committee of Experts urged repeal or amendment of laws and regulations restricting
          women's employment, and the discriminatory application of social security legislation.' 47
          60. The Secretary-General noted that the Labour Law is vaguely worded regarding the
          formation of free trade unions. Reportedly, attempts to create workers' associations and strike
          action over wages were met by arbitrary arrests and violence by security forces.' 48 In 2007, two
          Special Rapporteurs sent a communication regarding the alleged harassment of teachers in
          connection with protests related to their working conditions.' 49
          8. Right to social security and to an adequate standard of living
          61. The UNDP action plan noted that poverty in Iran is characterized by significant regional,
          rural-urban and gender differences.' 5 °
          62. A 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) report noted remarkable developments in the
          health sector. 151 UNICEF and the Secretary-General observed a significant improvement in life
        
          
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          expectancy' 52 and health care, including the reduction of child mortality and reproductive health
          care. 153 However, the 2006 WHO report indicated that over 10 per cent of the population was not
          covered by any insurance scheme and cited restricted access and low service availability in less
          developed provinces. 154
          63. CRC recommended measures addressing adolescent health issues and a comprehensive
          policy on reproductive health counselling and services.' 55 UNICEF cited drug use as the highest
          cause of HIV infection. Approaches aimed at HI”! prevention for young people remained a
          sensitive issue.' 56
          64. The Special Rapporteur on adequate housing raised concerns about obstacles to the
          realization of this right, including costs. He expressed concern at discrimination against ethnic
          and religious minorities and nomadic groups; alleged cases of land confiscation and forced
          evictions; discrimination against women and the poor; and limited services for informal
          settlements and poor neighborhoods. 157 He received testimonies on obstacles faced by single and
          divorced women wishing to buy and rent houses' 58 and expressed particular concern on the
          insufficiency of safe houses for runaway girls and street women . 159
          65. In Khuzestan, the Special Rapporteur visited lands traditionally cultivated by Iranian
          Arabs, expropriated by the Government for remarkably low prices for development projects and
          plantations. Those affected had no access to legal remedies.' 6 °
          66. According to information received, property confiscation in rural areas was often
          accompanied by threats and violence, affecting particularly religious minorities. 161
          67. The Special Rapporteur on adequate housing noted that housing, water, sanitation,
          electricity and protection from evictions must be addressed together, ensuring priority for women
          and vulnerable communities.' 62
          9. Right to education and to participate in the cultural life of the community
          68. The Secretary-General noted great improvements in the education sector, while challenges
          included a significant rise in the school-age population and inadequate rural facilities.' 63 The
          Special Rapporteur on violence against women cited the ratio of girls to boys in primary school
          as almost equal. In higher education, 62 per cent of students were women. 164
          69. CRC remained concerned that working children, children living on the streets and without
          complete personal documents, particularly refugees with binational parents, had reduced access
          to schools,' 65 citing also the lack of mobile schools for nomadic children. 166
          70. CERD requested information on opportunities for minorities to learn their mother tongue
          and its use as a medium of instruction. 167 Two mandate holders sent a communication regarding
          the demand by Azeri Turks for better recognition of cultural and linguistic rights.' 68
          71. CRC was concerned at the low number of disabled children attending school and lack of
          information on attempts at integration.' 69
          10. Minorities and indigenous peoples
        
          
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          72. In 2008 and 2009, the Secretary-General noted a pattern of concerns with respect to
          protection of minorities, including Bahá'is, Arabs in Khuzestan, Nematollahi Sufi Muslims,
          Kurds, Sunnis, Baluchis, Azeri-Turks and Christians. 170
          73. In 2007, three mandate holders urged the Government to stop the imminent execution of
          seven Ahwazi Arab men and grant them a fair and public hearing.' 7 ' In 2008, three Special
          Rapporteurs sent a communication regarding death sentences reportedly imposed on three ethnic
          Kurds found guilty of “mohareb”. Reportedly this charge is directed mainly against political
          dissidents, critics of the Government and persons accused of espionage. The query to provide the
          definition of mohareb has remained without
          74. In 2009, the ILO Committee of Experts sought information on the employment of ethnic
          minority groups, including in the public sector; on efforts to ensure equal opportunities; and on
          positions from which they are excluded on grounds of national security.' 73
          11. Migrants, refugees and asylum-seekers
          75. CRC was concerned at reports of the deportation of unaccompanied children, mostly
          Afghans, and the lack of access by humanitarian organizations to them; unaccompanied children
          arriving from neighbouring countries, particularly Afghanistan, allegedly for exploitation; and
          about the fate of children and families not in a position to return to Afghanistan for reasons
          including strong links with Iran or Iranian mothers.' 74
          76. The Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants noted that there were no clear
          policy, legislative and administrative measures governing legal migration from Afghanistan to
          Iran, contributing greatly to irregular and extralegal cross-border movements and encouraging
          use of smugglers and traffickers.' 75
          77. She noted a tendency to equate the situation of irregular migrants with that of refugees,
          adding that many irregular migrants were exploited in the black market,' 76 and recommended
          ensuring the application of international human rights standards concerning their apprehension,
          deportation, family reunion and conditions of detention.'” Irregular migrants detained pending
          deportation should be given access to courts and lawyers, and steps taken to ensure that victims
          of trafficking are not criminalized.' 78
          III. ACHIEVEMENTS, BEST PRACTICES, CHALLENGES AND CONSTRAINTS
          78. UNICEF noted that economic growth and implementation of extensive welfare
          programmes have improved the living standards of a large proportion of the population.' 79 The
          Secretary-General observed gains in economic, social and cultural rights, although significant
          disparities remain between urban and less-developed regions, and along gender lines.' 80
          79. According to the Secretary-General, Iran has been a long-standing and generous host to a
          substantial refugee population, particularly from Afghanistan. CERD and CCPR have also noted
          this.' 8 ' Two inclusive refugee registration exercises were conducted between 2005 and 2007, and
          a third in 2008. Commendably, issuance of work permits was also foreseen.' 82
          IV. KEY NATIONAL PRIORITIES, INITIATIVES AND COMMITMENTS
          Pledges by the State
        
          
          A/HRC/WG.6/7/IRN/2
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          80. In 2006, Iran declared it was considering accession to CEDAW and CAT, and
          reconsidering its reservation to CRC. It pledged to continue extending full cooperation with the
          Human Rights Council, including special procedures and the UPR. It committed to upholding the
          highest standards of all human rights, doubling its continuous and target-oriented efforts, and
          protecting against and preventing discrimination in law and practice. 183
          V. CAPACITY-BUILDING AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
          81. The Resident Coordinator in Iran in his 2008 annual report cited the importance of
          continuing to engage in capacity-building for human rights.' “The 2005-2009 United Nations
          Development Assistance Framework focused on five areas of cooperation, including
          strengthening capacities for achieving the MDGs.' 85
          82. CRC recommended the Government collaborate with NGOs working with street children
          and seek technical assistance from relevant international organizations.' 86 On young people and
          the fight against HIV/AIDS, CRC encouraged Iran to seek technical assistance from WHO, the
          Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, UNICEF, the United Nations Office on Drugs
          and Crime and the United Nations Population Fund. 187
          Notes
          ‘Unless indicated otherwise, the status of ratifications of instruments listed in the table may be found in Multilateral
          Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General: Status as' at 31 December 2006 (ST/LEG/SER.E.25), supplemented
          by the official website of the United Nations Treaty Collection database, Office of Legal Affairs of the United
          Nations Secretariat, http://treaties.un.org/
          2 The following abbreviations have been used for this document:
          ICERD Intemational Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
          ICESCR Intemational Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
          OP-ICESCR Optional Protocol to ICESCR
          ICCPR Intemational Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
          ICCPR-OP 1 Optional Protocol to ICCPR
          ICCPR-OP 2 Second Optional Protocol to ICCPR, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty
          CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
          OP-CEDAW Optional Protocol to CEDAW
          CAT Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Tnhuman or Degrading Treatment or
          Punishment
          OP-CAT Optional Protocol to CAT
          CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child
          OP-CRC-AC Optional Protocol to CRC on the involvement of children in armed conflict
          OP-CRC-SC Optional Protocol to CRC on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pomography
          ICRMW Intemational Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and
          Members of Their Families
          CRPD Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
          OP-CRPD Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
          CED Intemational Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance
          Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing
          the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime.
        
          
          A/HRC/WG.6/7/IRN/2
          Page 14
          1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol, 1954 Convention relating to the status of
          Stateless Persons and 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness.
          Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field
          (First Convention); Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked
          Members of Armed Forces at Sea (Second Convention); Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War
          (Third Convention); Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (Fourth Convention);
          Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of
          International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I); Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and
          relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II); Protocol Additional to the
          Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem
          (Protocol III). For the official status of ratifications, see Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland, at
          www.eda.admin.ch/eda/fr/home/topics/intla/intrea/chdep/warvic.html.
          6 Intemational Labour Organization Convention No. 29 conccming Forced or Compulsory Labour; Convention No.
          105 conceming the Abolition of Forced Labour, Convention No. 87 conceming Freedom of Association and
          Protection of the Right to Organize; Convention No. 98 conceming the Application of the Principles of the Right to
          Organize and to Bargain Collectively; Convention No. 100 conceming Equal Remuneration for Men and Women
          Workers for Work of Equal Value; Convention No. 111 conceming Discrimination in Respect of Employment and
          Occupation; Convention No. 138 conceming the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment; Convention No. 182
          conceming the Prohibition and Tmmediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour.
          A/63/459, para. 73.
          8 Concluding observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, CRC/C/15/Add.254, para. 6. See also
          UNICEF, submission to the UPR on Iran, p. 1, para. 5.
          E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.3, para. 72 (b) and (d).
          10 E/CN.4/2005/85/Add.2, para. 68.
          11 CRC/C/lS/Add.254, para. 75.
          12 Ibid., para. 50.
          13 Ibid., para. 69.
          14 A/63/459, para. 3. See also A/64/357, para. 3.
          UNICEF submission, p.2, para. 7.
          16 Comments of the Human Rights Committee, CCPRIC/79/Add.25, para. 6. See also concluding observations of the
          Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, E/C. 12/1993/7, para. 4, E/CN.4/2004/62/Add.2, para. 102 and
          CRC/C/l5/Add.254, paras. 3 9-40.
          17 A/63/459, para 5.
          18 Ibid., para. 6.
          19 Ibid., para. 7.
          20 A/64/357, para. 4.
          21 UNICEF submission, p. 3, para. 17.
          22 A/HRC/7/6/Add. 1, paras.2 14-226.
          23 Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, CERD/C/63/CO/6, para.
          8.
          24 Ibid.,para. 11.
          25 A/63/459, para. 13 and A/64/357, para. 5.
          26 E/CN.4/2004/62/Add.2, page 2.
          27 CRC/C/l5/Add.254, para. 13.
          28 Ibid.,para. 11.
          29 UNICEF submission, p. 2, para. 8. See also A/62/209, para. 9.
          30 The following abbreviations have been used for this document:
          CERD Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
          CESCR Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
          HR Committee Human Rights Committee
          CRC Committee on the Rights of the Child
          31 E/CN.4/2004/62/Add.2.
          32 A/55/346.
          E/CN.4/2004/3/Add.2 and Con. 1.
          ‘ E/CN.4/2005/85/Add.2.
          E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.3.
          36 E/CN.4/2006/4l/Add.2.
          E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.3, para. 5.
        
          
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          38 The questionnaires included in this section are those which have been reflected in an official report by a special
          procedure mandate-holder.
          See (a) report of the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially in women and children
          (E/CN.4/2006/62) and the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography
          (E/CN.4/2006/67), joint questionnaire on the relationship between trafficking and the demand for commercial sexual
          exploitation sent in July 2005; (b) report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and
          child pornography (A/HRC/4/3 1), questionnaire on the sale of children's organs sent in July 2006; (c) report of the
          Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children (AIHRC/4/23), questionnaire on issues
          related to forced marriages and trafficking in persons sent in 2006; (d) report of the Special Rapporteur on the
          human rights of migrants (AIHRC/4/24), questionnaire on the impact of certain laws and administrative measures on
          migrants sent in 2006; (e) report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to education (AIHRC/4/29), questionnaire on
          the right to education of persons with disabilities sent in 2006; (f) report of the Special Representative of the
          Secretary-General on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises
          (A/HRC/4/35/Add.3), questionnaire on human rights policies and management practices; (g) report of the Special
          Rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fttndamental freedoms of indigenous people (A!HRC/6/15),
          questionnaire on the human rights of indigenous people sent in August 2007; (h) report of the Special Rapporteur on
          the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (A/HRC/7/8), questionnaire on assistance and
          rehabilitation programmes for child victims of sexual exploitation sent in July 2007; (i) report of the Special
          Rapporteur on the right to education (A/HRC/8/10), questionnaire on the right to education in emergency situations
          sent in 2007; (j) report on the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children
          (A/HRC/10/16 and Con. 1), questionnaire on trafficking in persons, especially women and children; (k) report of the
          independent expert on the question of human rights and extreme poverty to the eleventh session of the Council (June
          2009) (AIHRC/l 1/9), questionnaire on Cash Transfer Programmes, sent in October 2008; (1) report of the Special
          Rapporteur on the right to education (June 2009) (A/HRC/1 1/8), questionnaire on the right to education for persons
          in detention; (m) report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, (June 2009) (A/HRC/l 1/6),
          questionnaire on violence against women and political economy; (n) report of the Special Rapporteur on
          contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences (AJHRC/l2/2l), questionnaire on national
          legislation and initiatives addressing the issue of bonded labour; (o) report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to
          food to the twelfth session of the Council (A/HRC/12/3 1), questionnaire on world food and nutrition security; (p)
          report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (A/HRC/12/23),
          %uestionnaire on measures to prevent and combat online child pornography.
          “ Questionnaire on the right to education of persons with disabilities.
          ‘ A/64/357, para. 62.
          42 U NDG Resident Coordinator Annual Report — Iran, 2007, available at
          http://www.undg.org/rcaro7.cfm?ft,seaction=RCAR&ctyIDC=IRA&P=589 (accessed on 29 September 2009).
          A/63/459, para. 76.
          44 A/64/357, para. 62.
          A/63/459, para. 49.
          46 CCPR/C/79/Add.25, para. 13.
          E/C.l2/1993/7, paragraph 6.
          48 CCPR/C/79/Add.25, para. 13.
          49 IJNICEF submission, p. 4, para. 23.
          50 CCPR/C/79/Add.25, para. 13.
          ‘ A/63/459, para. 50.
          52 U NICEF submission, p. 4, para. 23.
          CRC/C/15/Add.254, para. 35.
          E/CN.4/2005/85/Add.2, para. 27.
          E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.3, para. 75.
          56 A/63/459, para. 23.
          CCPR/C/79/Add.25, para. 18. See also General Assembly resolutions 63/191 and 62/168.
          58 A/63/459, para. 33, and A164/357, para. 36.
          A/64/357, para. 36.
          60 See public statements of the High Commissioner of 6 December 2007 and 10 June 2008 available at
          http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/FramePage/country+Iran?OpenDocument for specific cases. See also
          A/63/459, para. 44.
          61 A/63/459, paras. 37 — 38.
          62 U NICEF submission, p.3, para. 16.
          63 A/63/459, para. 39.
        
          
          A/HRC/WG.6/7/IRN/2
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          64 Public statement of the High Commissioner of 13 October 2009 available at
          http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane .nsf/FramePage/country+Iran?OpenDocument
          65 A/63/459, paras. 37 - 38.
          66 Public statement of the High Commissioner of 13 October 2009 available at
          http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane .nsf/FramePage/country+Iran?OpenDocument. See also
          CRC/C/15/Add.254, paras. 29-30.
          67 E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.3, para. 41.
          68 A/HRC/1 1/6/Add.!, paras. 292-303.
          69 Ibid., paras.327-335. See also Public statement of the High Commissioner of 10 July 2007..
          70 A/63/459, para. 23. See also CCPR/C/79/Add.25, para. 11.
          71 Ibid., para. 26.
          72 Ibid., para. 27.
          CRC/C/i 5/Add.254, para. 45. —
          “ A/HRC/l0/9, para. 197-202.
          ‘ E/CN.4/2006/56 and Con.!, para. 292.
          76 United Nations experts gravely concemed by mass arrests in Iran, 7 July 2009,
          http://www2.ohchr.org/eng1ish/bodies/chr/special/press2009.htm, accessed on 14 September 2009. See also
          A/64/357, para. 2!.
          Public statement of the High Commissioner on 19 June 2009 available at
          http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/FramePage/country+Iran?OpenDocument. See also A/64/357, para. 19
          and UN experts gravely concemed by mass arrests in Iran, 7 July 2009,
          http://www2.ohchr.org/eng1ish/bodies/chr/special/press2009 .htrn.
          78 UN experts gravely concemed by mass arrests in Iran, 7 July 2009,
          http://www2.ohchr.org/eng1ish/bodies/chr/special/press2009 .htm.
          Ibid..
          80 Public statement of the High Commissioner for Human Rights of 13 October 2009 available at
          http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane .nsf/FramePage/country+Iran?OpenDocument.
          ‘ A/63/459, para. 24 and A/64/357, para. 29.
          82 Iran: detainees subjected to torture and ill-treatment to extract confessions, wam United Nations experts, 13
          August 2009, http://www2.ohchr.org/cnglish/bodies/chr/spcciallprcss2009htm, accessed on 14 September 2009.
          83 CCPR/C/79/Add.25, para. 19.
          84 E/CN.4/2005/5 i/Add.! paras. 38-46, E/CN.4/2005/6 1/Add.! paras. l35-!43, E/CN.4/2006/5/Add.l paras. 170-
          210, E/CN.4/2006/6/Add.! paras. 96-l!5, E/CN.4/2006/!6/Add. 1 paras. 41-42, E/CN.4/2006/48/Add.! paras. 26-
          29, E/CN.4/2006/52/Add.! paras. 106-122, E/CN.4/2006/53/Add.! pp. 87-111, E/CN.4/2006/55/Add.! paras. 4!9-
          455, E/CN.4/2006/6!/Add. 1, E/CN.4/2006/67/Add. 1 paras. 65-68, E/CN.4/2006/95/Add.! paras. 256-269,
          A/HRC/4/l 9/Add.! paras. 103-119, A/HRC/4/20/Add.1 pp. 10, 151-172, A/HRC/4/2 1/Add.! paras. 177-206,
          A/HRC/4/25/Add.1 paras. 179-200, A/HRC/4/27/Add. 1 paras. 278-312, A/HRC/4/3 1/Add.! para. 96,
          A/HRC/4/33/Add.1 paras. 86-1 !4, A/HRC/4/34/Add.1 paras. 298-331, A/HRC/4/37/Add. 1 paras. 327-3 54,
          A/HRC/4/40/Add.! pp. 70-74, A/HRC/7/6/Add.! paras. 192-233, A/HRC/7/lO/Add.! paras. 116-129,
          A/HRC/7/!9/Add.! paras. 85 -9!, A/HRC/7/23/Add. 1 paras. 20-23, A/HRC/7/28/Add. 1 paras. 1136-1220,
          A/HRC/8/4/Add. 1 paras. 153-166, A/HRC/8/!0/Add.! paras. 39-43, A/HRC/!0/3/Add.! paras. 97-106,
          A/HRC/lO/8/Add.! paras. 8!-!!2, A/HRC/l 1/6/Add.! paras. 247-337, A/HRC/l !/7/Add. 1 paras. 141-149,
          A/HRC/l 1/36/Add.! paras. 42-45, A/HRC/l !/84 1/Add.! paras. 137-16!. See also UN experts gravely concemed by
          mass arrests in Iran, 7 July 2009, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/chr/special/press2009.htm, accessed on 14
          September 2009.
          85 A/63/459, para. 52.
          86 E/CN.4/2006/6!/Add.3, para. 34.
          87 Ibid., para. 35.
          88 Ibid., page 2.
          89 CRC/C/15/Add.254, para. 3!.
          90 Ibid., para. 47.
          91 Ibid., para, 51.
          92 E/CN.4/2004/3/Add.2, para. 54
          E/CN.4/2006/6!/Add.3, para. 36.
          ‘ CRC/C/i 5/Add.254, para, 70.
          ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, Individual Direct Request
          conceming Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182), 2009, Geneva, doc. No. (ILOLEX)
          0920091RN!82, para. 10. See also CRC/C/lS/Add.254, para. 7!.
        
          
          A/HRC/WG.6/7/IRN/2
          Page 17
          96 ILO Committee of Experts, Individual Direct Request conceming Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention,
          1999 (No. 182), 2009, Geneva, doe. No. (ILOLEX) 0920091RN182, paras. 3-4.
          CRC/C/15/Add.254, para. 64.
          98 ILO Committee of Experts, Individual Direct Request conceming Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention,
          1999 (No. 182), 2009, Geneva, doe. No. (ILOLEX) 0920091RN182, para. 12.
          99 Ibid.,para. 13.
          100 CCPR/C/79/Add.25, para. 20.
          101 E/CN.4/2004/3/Add.2, para. 65 (1).
          102 Iran must stop executions of Ahwazi Arabs sentenced to death following a secret, grossly unfair trial, rapporteurs
          say, 10 January 2007, http://www2.ohchr.org/englishIbodies/chr/special/press2007.htm, accessed on 14 September
          2009.
          103 E/CN.4/2004/3/Add.2, para. 65 (4).
          ‘° A163/459, para. 69.
          105 E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.3, para. 73.
          106 Ibid., para. 50.
          107 CRC/C/l5/Add.254, para. 72.
          108 IJNICEF submission, p. 3, para. 17.
          109 A/63/459, para. 41.
          110 Ibid., para. 72.
          A/63/459, paras. 37 38.
          112 CRC/C/l5/Add.254, para. 8.
          113 Ibid., para. 27.
          114 E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.3, para. 47.
          115 CRC/C/l5/Add.254, para. 24.
          116 Ibid., para. 22.
          117 CRC/C/l5/Add.254, para. 23.
          118 See also E/C.l2/l993/7, para. 6 and CRC/C/i 5/Add.254, para. 24.
          119 CCPR/C/79/Add.25, para. 22.
          120 CRC/C/i 5/Add.254, para. 41. See also CCPRIC/79/Add.25.
          121 E/CN.4/2006/41/Add.2, para. 81.
          122 CCPR/C/79/Add.25, para. 16.
          123 Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief concemed about treatment of followers of Baha'i faith in Iran,
          20 March 2006, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/chr/special/press2006.htm, accessed on 14 September 2009.
          124 The independent expert on minority issues, the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial
          discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, the
          Special Rapporteur on the independence of judges and lawyers, the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and
          protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, and the Special Rapporteur on the question of torture
          and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
          125 AIHRC/7/23/Add.l, para. 20; A/HRC/4/19/Add.l, paras. 103-106; A/HRC/4/25/Add.l, para. 179
          126 A163/459, paras. 55 and 57. See also CERD/C/63/CO/6, para. 14, E/CN.4/2004/62/Add.2, para. 84, A/64/357,
          para. 48 and A/IIRC/lO/8/Add.l, paras. 86-89.
          127 A/HRC/lO/8/Add.l, paras. 107-108. See also CERD/C/63/CO/6, para. 14, CRC/C/l5/Add.254, para. 59 and
          E/C.12/l993/7, para. 5.
          128 E/CN.4/2004/62/Add.2, para. 45. See also A163/459, para. 22.
          129 E/CN.4/2004/62/Add.2, page 2.
          130 Ibid., para. 81.
          131 AJ63/459, para. 65. See also CCPR/C/79/Add.25, para. 15.
          132 A164/357, para. 14.
          133 CCPR/C/79/Add.25, para. 15.
          134 UN Experts deeply concemed about arrests of women's rights defenders in Iran, 5 April 2007,
          http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/chr/special/press2007.htm, accessed on 14 September 2009. See also Public
          statement of the High Commissioner of 6 March 2007, and A/63/495, para. 53.
          135 UN Experts wam on the ongoing crackdown of womens rights defenders in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 27
          November 2008, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/chr/special/press2008.htm, accessed on 14 September 2009.
          See also A163/459, para. 65.
          136 Public statement of the Secretary-General of 3 January 2009 available at
          http://www.unhchr.chlhuricane/huricane.nsf/FramePage/country+Jran?OpenDocument.
          137 A/64/357, para. 14.
        
          
          A/HRC/WG.6/7/IRN/2
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          138 High Commissioner's oral statement to the twelfth session of the Human Rights Council of 14 September 2009
          available at
          http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/view0l/2DD5A4BD46C13CEFC125763 1002D5B6B?opendocument.
          139 CRCIC/15/Add.254, para. 19 and CERD/C/63/CO/6, para. 17.
          140 IJNICEF submission, p. 4, para. 23.
          141 A/631459, para, 51.
          142 E/CN.4/2006/6l/Add.3, para. 29.
          143 See also UN Experts wam on the ongoing crackdown of women's rights defenders in the Islamic Republic of Iran,
          27 November 2008, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/chr/special/press2008.htm, accessed on 14 September
          2009.
          144 CCPR/C/79/Add.25, para. 13 and E/C.12/1993/7, 9 June 1993, para. 6.
          145 CRC/C/15/Add.254, para. 68. See also ILO Committee of Experts, Individual Direct Request conceming Worst
          Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182), 2009, Geneva, doc. No. (ILOLEX) 0920091RN182, para. 6.
          146 A/631459, para. 18 and A/641357, para. 11. See also UNICEF submission, p. 4, para. 23.
          147 ILO Committee of Experts, Individual Observation conceming Discrimination (Employment and Occupation)
          Convention, 1958 (No. 111), 2009, Geneva, doc. No. (ILOLEX) 0620091RN1 11, para. 13. See also
          E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.3, para. 75.
          148 A/631459, para. 66.
          para. 39.
          150 TJNDP Country Programme Action Plan 2005 -2009, p. 2, para. 2.4, available at
          http://www.un.org.ir/Pub_Gallery/Publications/General%2oDocuments/UNDP-CPAP.pdf (accessed on 29
          September 2009).
          151 WHO, Country Cooperation Strategy at a Glance, Geneva, 2006, available at
          http://www.who.int/countryfocus/cooperation_strategy/ccsbrief_im_en.pdf (accessed 9 September 2009).
          152 A/63/459, para. 19 and A/64/357, para. 12.
          153 UNICEF submission, p. 2, paras. 14-15.
          154 WHO, Country Cooperation Strategy at a Glance, Geneva, 2006, available at
          http://www.who.int/countryfocus/cooperationstrategy/ccsbriefimen.pdf(accessed 9 September 2009).
          155 CRC/C/15/Add.254, para. 58.
          156 UNICEF submission, p. 4, para. 21.
          157 E/CN.4/2006/41/Add.2, page 2
          158 Ibid., para. 95
          159 Ibid., paras.101 and 105.
          160 Ibid., para. 79
          161 Ibid., para. 83
          ‘ 62 Ibid.,para. 32
          163 A/631459, para, 17 and A/64/357, para. 10.
          164 E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.3, para. 26.
          165 CRC/C/15/Add.254, para. 59. See also UNICEF submission, para. 19.
          166 CRC/C/15/Add.254, para. 60.
          167 CERD/C/63/CO/6, para. 13.
          168 A/HRC/4/19/Add. 1, paras 109-110.
          169 CRC/C/15/Add.254, para. 53.
          170 A/63/459, para. 59 and A/64/357, para. 47.
          171 Iran must stop executions of Ahwazi Arabs sentenced to death following a secret, grossly unfair trial, rapporteurs
          say, 10 January 2007, http://www2.ohchr.org/eng1ish/bodies/chr/specia1/press2007.htm, accessed on 14 September
          2009.
          172 A/HRC/lO/3/Addl paras. 97-105.
          173 ILO Committee of Experts, Individual Observation concerning Discrimination (Employment and Occupation)
          Convention, 1958 (No. 111), 2009, Geneva, doc. No. (ILOLEX) 0620091RN1 11, para. 15.
          174 CRC/C/15/Add.254, para. 62.
          175 E/CN.4/2005/85/Add.2, para. 60.
          176 Ibid., paras. 57 and 59.
          177 Ibid., para. 71.
          178 Ibid., para. 72.
          179 UNICEF submission, p. 1, para. 2.
          180 A/63/459, paras. 14 and 20.
          181 A/631459, para. 61, CERD/C/63/CO/6, para. 5 and CCPRIC/79/Add.25, para. 5.
        
          
          A/HRC/WG.6/7/IRN/2
          Page 19
          182 A1631459 para. 61.
          183 Pledges and commitments undertaken by Iran before the Human Rights Council, as contained in the letter dated S
          May 2006 sent by the Permanent Mission of Iraq to the United Nations addressed to the Secretariat of the United
          Nations, available at http://www.un.org/ga/60/elect/hrc/, (accessed on 9 September 2009).
          ‘s” UNDO, Resident Coordinator Annual Report — Iran, 2008, available at
          http://www.undg.org/rcaro8.cfm?fliseaction=RCAR&ctyIDC=IRA&P= 1095 (accessed on 29 September 2009).
          185 Iran UNDAF 2005-2009, 2004, p. 3, available at: http://www.undg.org/archive_docs/529 l-Iran_TJNDAF.pdf
          (accessed on 29 October 2009).
          186 CRCIC/l5IAdd.254, para. 65.
          187 Ibid., para. 58.
        
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