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Consideration of Iran's Report under Article 9 of the Convention

This is the CERD's analysis of IRI's response to the Human Rights Covenant. It notes inconsistencies in the Constitution and especially questions the status of Baha'i in IRI. Includes charts of quantitative statistics of minorities in Iran.

          
          -- -
          : -
          A
          _) cr
          T TT ' T
          ON THE ELIMINATION CERDjC'9l 1 . 31
          OF.g4LL FORMS OF . - 22 C zober 19E2
          RACIAL DISCRIMINATION Orizinal: GLISH
          I 0NMITTEE ON THE fl 2fl( TION .
          OF RACILL DISCRfl TION
          Twenty—seventh session .
          . CONS )ERATI0N OP REPORTS SUBIITTHD BY STATES P. RT -S
          . DIWER J BTICLE 9 OF ‘ CONV TION .
          . Seventh period .ic reports of States parties due in 1982
          Addendum
          . , IRAN j
          . . . , . [ 30 September 1952]
          Preamble , . . . ,
          OEe country of Iran has since long, been the abode and dwelling 1ace. of various
          nations, peoples'and sects-with different-races—and--religions. In the course of the
          History of Iran, the said peoples have always lived with each other in peace-' and
          ‘ tranquility, and the -central government has treated afl. i s ub jscts indiscriminat
          I all its edicts and orders to the local governors, representatives and satraps,
          the central government has instructed and emphasized on the cbservance of their
          human rights and the respect for their dignity and honour. .
          The present status of different racial -and religious groups existing in Iran
          reflects this reality and friendly and indiscriminative historical record that the
          question of racial segregation has-never existed in Iran. The Government of Iran,
          however, due to the commitments it bad undertaken on the basis of .Article 4 of the
          International Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, passed -
          July 1977 the law on the punishment of the propagation of racial segregation. This
          law is still in force, but no one has so far. been prosecuted for this cffence due
          to the non—existence of any racial hostility or conflicts.
          After the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, the law makern paid .
          careful and emphatic attention to this important fact and took it into consideration
          when preparing the Constitution of th Islamic Republic of Iran, and deemed its
          observance as binding and indispensable.
          i/ For previous reports submitted by the Government of Iran and the sinnm vy
          cords of meetings of the Con ittee at which such reports were considered, see:
          (i) Initial report — CERD/C/R.3/Acld.1 (CERD/c/sR.31, 33 and 56);
          . (2) Second periodic report .nd . .dd .45
          . (cEP.1/c/sR.127 and 179);
          3) Third periodic report — CERD/C/R.7o/ dd.1 (CE?.D/c/SR.l79);
          (4) Fo' rth periodic report — CERD,C/R.9o/ dd.2 (cEflD/c/ R.279);
          (5) Fifth periodic report — C .D/C/2c'/ dd.1 (C /c/sR. 7l)
          (6) Sixth periodic report — c D/C/66/Ldd.5 (C D/C/SR, 72).
          GE. 82—17725
          BP000673
        
          
          ,,. .
          Par ra h C, Pr c_pJ .e 2 Cf -t 6 Cc t1t t1 fl of :he Islar. .c RepL .olic of Ira'i
          :rovides for the eli: .inatiOfl cf all forns of oppression 1 exploatatioO, conanation
          and being dominated, and is of this .opifli-Ofl that justice and equity and political,
          economic, social and cultural indep ridenCe ensure the national solidarity. . .
          OEe Tnird Paragraph of Principle 3, prc des for the free education and
          ;hysical training for everybody at all levels as well as the faciiita ing and
          generalizing the higher education. .
          The Eighth ;aragraph stipulates the participation of the public in the ‘
          eterminatiofl of their own political, economic, social and cu.lturaj. destity.
          The Ninth Paragraph provides or the elimination of unjust discriminations
          and the ensuring of all people the equitable p ss!bilities in all material and
          spiritual fields. . .
          The Fourteenth Para aph provides for the ensuring of all—encompassing rights
          of individuals, men and.womeri, and. .ju t legal security for everybody as well as
          he equality of all the people before the law.
          Principle 28 of the Constitution reads that the government ‘is bound to
          :.rovide, with due regard to the need of the society to different professions, all
          the people with possibility of employment and equal conditions to g employed.
          According to Principle 29, it is the right of everybody to benefit from' the
          social security in cases of retirement, unemployment, old age, disablement, ,. .
          ‘uoprotectedness, running short of ‘otie's money while being away on a journey,
          accidents, the need to he lth and treatment services and medical care, in the form
          of insurance and the like OEe Governme it is bound to provide the individual .
          ; eople of th couiitry with IIe foregoing services and financial assistance' to be
          financed from the public revenues and the income derived from public participation. .
          . On the basis of ?rinci le 30, the Government is bound to provide the means Qf
          free education until the completion of the high school for the hole nation and to
          expand the means of free higher studies until the attainment by the country to
          elf—sufficiency. . . .
          In accordance with Principle 34, it is the inalienable right of any individual
          to seek justice, and refer to competent courts to plead. All individuals are
          ntitled to have such courts to which, according to law, they are entitled to
          recourse. . . . . .
          Besides, in connection ‘with religious minorities, mention should be made
          that the religion of Islam has a deep respect for other religicns , and considers
          the observance of rights and dignity and free conducting of religious rites and
          uties of other divine religions and sects as respected. Principles 13, 14, 15
          and 19, among other important principles of t:ie Constitution, provides for -the ‘.
          Dreservation of the rights of the religious minorities, the contents of ;hich are
          . xplained for information.
        
          
          : :
          ‘ -I
          -
          principles on the Rights of ReligiOus N!noTiti .
          Principle 13: OEe Zoroasterian, Jewish and Christian Iranians shall be the
          sole recognized religious minorities that are free to perform, in accordance witn
          ‘ law, their religious rights and act in ccmpliance .itn tneir religion as far as
          their personal status and religious teachin are ccncerned.
          Princinle 14: s specified in the Nunificent verse of the C-1oriou Koran:
          “Allah does not forbid you to show idndness to an 5 deal justly vith those who did
          not war against you on account of your religion and did not drive you out of your
          homes. Allah loves the just dealers”, the Government of the Islanic Republic
          of Iran and MuslimS are bound to deal with non-Nuslirn individuals with good morals
          and Islamic justice nd equity and respect their human rights. OEe present principle
          applies only to those who -do not conspire and act against Islam and the Islamic
          Republic of Iran. .
          Principle .15: •OEe state and coimiion language and script of Iran is Persian...
          Official documents, correspondence and texts and school books shall be written
          in this language and script. Rowever, the use of local and ethnic languages in the
          press and mass media and the teaching of their literature in schools, along with
          Persian, is allowed. .
          . Principle 19: OEe people of Iran belonging to any ethnic or tribal group,.
          shall enjo equal rights •and colour,_race, language and the like shall not be
          considered as a privilege .. -.
          . On the basis of these principles religious minorities are free to practise
          their religion and teach their rituals through the religious instruction books they
          teach in school. OEe Constitution binds the Nuslims to resbect the religious
          minorities. The non- uslims similar ‘to Nus im should enjoy Islamic justice and
          ‘.equlty. ‘ . . . . , . . . . .
          Religious minorities have independent publications peculiar to thsrLeelVeS ,
          -the nurber of whiQh has, after the victory of the Revolution, increased several
          times by comparison to what existed before the Revolution. .
          For the implementation of the above principles, the Ni.nistry of Islamic
          Guidance has created a unit to deal with the affairs of the religious minorities.
          This section is charged with the duty of investigating and settling the
          difficulties of the minorities, satisfying their cultural needs and facilitating
          their religious ceremonies. This section extends its assistance to official
          religious minorities in the following cases: .
          1. Participation of the members of the .official religious minorities in religious
          conferences held abroad to which they are invited.
          2. Inviting non—Iranian missionaries needed by religious minorities for the
          . performanCe of their religious ceremot.ies ,
          3, Provision, fran abroad, of religious books and panphlets needed by the religious
          minorities as recuested by them.
          4. Provision of the necessary facilities fo: the -rerformance of their national
          and religious ceremonies or. various OcCasions.
          5. acilitatir.g the visit of the foreign leaders and personalities of the
          religious minorities to ir Iranian cegior Lsts. .
        
          
          cE /C/91/1 31
          page 4
          To sun up, this section has the duty to endeavour to establish a closer
          relatiotishiP between Nuslims and Iraiuafl rslig -O- .nd their “
          Q 51igi0 5t 5 abroad and the creation of u derstafl ing between Euslims and ...
          religious minorities, and. that the religious minorities too, nay enjoy Islamic
          justice and equity. . .
          Statistic fth 1 O S Nino ieS . .
          For the tine being there axe about 60,000 Jews, 20,000 Zcroasterians,
          110,000 Armenians and 30,000 Assyriatis living with their Nusli fe11ow OOuflt1 5fl
          in Iran. - . . . . . .
          The population statistics of the country divided on IIe basis of sex and age
          in different urban and rural regions as well as the oopulatiOfl of Iran divided
          on the basis of different religions are given in the following tables.. As regards
          the activities of foreign workers in Iran, the attention of the Co ittee on the
          Elimination of Racial Discrimination is drawn to this fact that no racial.. . .
          discriminat.IIfl is exercised as far as the employment of foreign specialists is
          conc ed. : - . . . ,. . . ... . . .
          1. For the tine being, there are 14,180 foreign nationals working i i Iran who hive
          work permits. Out of this number, 11,942 personS, because of the form of
          ownership . of the workshop, work in the public sector, .nd 2,238 persons in the
          private sector, which.are separatelY shown in Table No. 1. . . .
          2. Out of 14,180 foreign workers, 1O,083.peoPle are from sia, 5,016 people from
          Europe, 31 people from . merica (the. continent), 30 people from Africa and 21 people
          from Australia, as shown separatelY for each country, in Table No.2. .
          3. Out of the 14,180 foreign nationals working in Iran, there are 61 religiouS
          m .ssionarieS,. 24 persons of whom are Roman CatholiC, 29 persons are Chaldaic,
          6 personS are Armenians and 2 personS are Zorc,asterian missionarieS. .
          OEe work permit of these perso r1s have been issued and extendad as confirmed
          by the N.II.istry of National Guidance. . .
        
          
          Rural population Urban population Total_population_of the country Age
          Female flab Total Female Male Total Female Male Total _________
          8 789 ] 9 : 4 696 17 854 064 7 563 229 8 291 451 15 854 680 16 352 397 17356 347 33 700 744 Total
          1 538 111 1 701 342 3 239 453 1 066 658 11 236' .01 2 190 259 2 604 769 2 824 943 5 429 712 4—0
          1. 455 155 1 584 934 3 040 009 1 066 388 1 150 056 2 236 444 2 541 543 2 734 990 5 276 533 9—5
          ) 072 014 1 160 565 2 232 579 972 469 1 098 070 2 073 539 2044 483 2 258 635 4 303 118 14—10
          (39). 744 792 919 1 684 663 889 982 1 025 620 1 915 6d2 .i. 781 726 1 818 539 3 600 265 19—15
          710 2 '7 551 799 1 262 006 741 150 789 059 ]. 530 ‘2 9 1 451 351 1 340858 2792 215 2420
          550 024 /140 558 99t:. 582 551 366 569 637 1 121 003 1101 390 1 010 195 2 li i 585 29—25
          444 236 385 35 829 591 420 308 457 098 877406 86 544 842 453 1 706 997 34_30
          /124 1(8 408 3.87 832 295 377 171 417 153 794 3 4 801 279 625 340 ]. 626 619 39—35
          ‘123 734 476 603 900 337 349 750 410 598 768 3 8 . 773 464 825 201 1 668 605 44—40
          3/14 5/12 412 855 757 3 8 293 896 338 171 632 067 638 439 75] 026 338 965 / 19—45
          326 591 4c7 893 735 3 4 27'.; 785 322 880 . 593 6 597 376 731 673 1 329 049 54_5(.
          157 764 . 212 425 370 189 3.49 418 184 280 333 69 30718? 391 4' 2; 703 837 59—55
          3.52 4C5 168 525 32]. 930 129 337 132 877 262 21 4 282 742 30]. 402 584 344 64—60 .
          297 532 360. 036 657 568 264 551 263 451 . 528 902 562 083 624 387 1 106 47(; 65 years
          , axu more
          . . i: ()
          . ,
          . CD t:'
          . . J1
          0.
          . . . CL
          . ,_ L ._. . ..
        
          
          Other
          religionn
          Chri itian ;
          — I Zoroa trian
          Others Msyri n Aniienian .
          Jewiah
          
          Mualim
          Total
          •33 396 908
          17 196 024
          884
          8
          148
          633
          17 822
          9 047
          8 774
          i 7 8
          391
          787
          33
          708 744 Total population
          17
          16
          356 347 Male
          352 397 Female
          Urban population
          .15
          854 680 Hale &nd. f em le
          .
          8
          291 451. Male
          7
          563 229 Female
          .
          . Rural population
          17
          854 064
          Male ann female
          .
          9
          064 896
          Male
          8
          789 168
          .v
          ) P1
          ::‘.‘
          .—
          0/ ()
          —
          SO
          ;D .
          0.
          0.
          59 585
          3]. 113
          20 472
          39 079
          21 695
          8 184
          25551
          12 880
          12 671
          103
          51
          51
          163
          957
          206
          62 258
          31 833
          30 425
          46 304
          24 032.
          22 222
          H
          35 515
          1!] 829
          16 686
          21 760
          10 871
          10 889
          21 400
          10845.
          10 555
          19 l9 O
          9 664
          9 534
          2 202
          ] 181
          1 021
          98 498
          49 337
          49 161
          4 665
          2 620
          2 045
          13
          7
          (;
          201
          03].
          250
          4 364
          2 866
          1 498
          58
          30
          28
          3
          1
          1
          3 791
          2 009
          1 782
          675
          035
          640
          583
          798
          785
        
          
          Tab1e. No,. 1
          CE ,'CI9. /Add .31
          page 7
          OEepresent status.of foreign nationals working in Iran ,
          in accordance with the forn of workshop ownership
          . jForm of the ownership of the workshop
          tkjor employment groups . . 1
          Private Public
          Specialized, technical and ‘
          professional employments ]. 034 1 8 718
          Employment as sellers 418 24
          : Governmental and industrial management 301 . 1 408
          Secretarial affairs 85 . 5 l 4
          Employment in the field ‘of agriculture, .
          . fishing, hunting and forestry . 15 433 .
          Employment in the field of IIines and ..
          . extracting metals and ores , 17 . . 48
          Employment in the field of transportation . .
          and communication . . . 24 156
          . Technicians and workers in the field of . !
          production not classified elsewhere 284 . .767
          Workers in different sections of sports ( .
          and recreation . 42 : . 184
          Total . . 2 238 1]. 942
          General total 14 180 . 1
        
          
          CZRD/C/91/Add .31
          page 8
          2 : ConditiOn of employed alien nationalsin the country
          according to nationa1itY
          . $.IAN. QQN .
          ‘:‘. 3583 .
          1 219
          797
          717
          626
          475
          398
          170
          .70
          62
          57
          4].
          33 .
          29
          30
          - . 2L
          16
          ‘I.
          7
          5
          5
          6
          4
          1
          ].
          India
          .- .-.. o WiI&n
          Pakistan. H
          Japan
          Philippines
          ira.qi Refugee&
          Bangladesh
          .SOUII ora
          Mgbaiustan• ..
          Nalaysia . .-.
          Lebanon
          Taiwan
          .: OE4fiand ...
          Indonesia ..
          Sri. Lanka
          No. of per o is. . . . .
          employed
          ,
          . . -: . ..:
          NationalitY
          presently
          , .—...—. ;
          .; ....
          ... . . Syria. .
          Singapore
          Nepal
          Joi'dan
          People's Republic of China
          Hong Kong
          Kuwait
          Saudi Arabia
          Bahrain
          Yemen
          Burma
          10 083 TOTAL .
        
          
          2 : Condition of employed alien nationals in the ccuntry
          according to natio a1i Y
          CERD/C/91/.4dd.31
          page 9
          EURGPEA.N CONTINENT .
          1485
          598
          246
          164
          222
          192 . .
          173 .:
          130
          110
          95
          109
          81
          69
          53 . ..
          52
          . . 53
          44
          34
          32
          23
          ‘24
          12
          6
          3
          3
          2
          1
          Italy
          West Gei a y
          Romania
          Prance
          Yugoslavia
          . Poland .
          OE g1 and
          Czechoslovakia
          ‘ Greece
          . ‘ . Austria
          Spain, ‘
          .--. ‘Switzer1 nd
          Sweden
          Bulgaria
          OErkey
          Belgium.
          Portugal
          Runga l7
          Netherlands
          East Germany
          Denmark
          Ireland
          Finland
          Norway
          L uxembourg
          Cyprus
          Malta
          NO.
          of persons .
          employed
          ‘ .. .
          Nationality .
          presently ,
          4 016
          TOT . ,
        
          
          CE'RD/C/91 /Add .31
          page 10
          2 : Condition of emp1o ed alien iationals in the count j
          ! cc0rdir1 to nationali . ‘
          No. of persons
          . .. , . employe4. Nationality
          presently ‘ .
          RICLN cOIf i ENT
          7 United States of America
          5 Uruguay
          5 .. Argentina
          4 : Peru
          . 3 .. Canada
          4 . . Brazil
          2' . Chile . .
          . 1 . . Ja maica
          1 Colombia
          32 ‘.
          :
          .
          ,
          TOTAL
          .
          LFRIC.AN
          COI TINENT
          -
          4
          -
          .
          .
          E rpt
          .
          .
          Mauritania
          2
          Morocco .
          .
          ,
          •
          .
          .
          .
          Ghana
          .
          .
          2
          .
          Algeria
          .
          Mauritius
          4 -
          ,
          Tanzania .
          ].
          Tunisia
          .
          1
          Kenya
          1
          .
          South Africa
          1
          :
          Zaire
          1
          •
          :
          Ethiopia .
          ].
          Somalia
          .. --——
          -.---
          ,
          — -....- .
          .
          TOTAL .
          .-.
        
          
          CERD/CI9iiAdd.31
          page 11
          2 : Condition of emDloyed alien nationals in the countr r
          according to nationality
          No. of persons
          e p1oyed
          presently
          Nationality
          AUSTRALIAN CO1 TINENT
          14
          7 .
          Australia
          New Zealand
          21
          TOTAL
          14 180
          GRAND TOTAL
        
          
          -l
          OUTLINE OF PROPOSED PAPER FOR SUBMISSION TO OF RD
          Author's note : cERD is primarily concerned with examining the legal aspects
          of any discriminatory situation rather than the humanitarian aspects, and
          the outline is drafted with this in mind. It also tries to anticipate the
          points likely to be raised by Iran's representative in response to questions
          about the Baha' s and to nullify them in advance.
          1. Iranian government has stated in its report to CERD IIat IIere is no
          discrimination of any kind in Iran and IIat, in particular, religious
          minorities enjoy full protection, rights and freedoms.
          2. We would like to draw attention of CERD to plight of Bah ' f community
          of 300,000 who have suffered discrimination for over a century, have
          absolutely no rights or legal status under present Constitution of
          Iran, and who are victims of discriminatory practices/legislation
          affecting every area of their lives.
          3. Situation arises because of omission of Bah 'Cs from Constitution.
          Explain whole legal system based on Islamic law — civil rights and
          liberties all depend on religious affiliation. Denial of recognition
          means not just denial of freedom to practise religion but denial of
          all or any rights/protection under Constitution. .
          4. Principle 13 of Constitution (quoted by Iran in its report) identi-
          fies “sole recognized religious minorities”. They are only on to
          enjoy freedoms/privileges enumerated on page 3 of Iran's report.
          5. Principle 14 (also quoted) states that Muslims must deal with non—.
          Muslims. with justice and equity and respect their human rights. Might
          appear to offer some protection to Bah ' s but is negated by rider . ,
          stating that principle applies only to those who “do not conspire
          . against Islam and the• Islamic Republic of Iran”. .
          6. Bah 'i:s regarded, de facto , as enemies of/conspirators against Islam.
          Explain - rebut. , . .
          7. Principle 19 (quoted) covers only ethnic groups and not (as stated by
          Iran) religious groups. In any case, Baha' s have no rights under
          any principle of Constitution, as explained above.
          8. Bah 'Ls not listed as a religious minority in Iran's report and not
          included in “Other Religions” total of under 60,000. Iran's 300,000
          Baha'a's (Iran has sometimes claimed 30,000, but this not so) presum-
          ably included in “Muslim” total. Cite representative of Iran at com-
          mission on Human Rights stating that Baha' s considered to be part of
          Muslim majority. Might imply Baha'is therefore enjoy same constitu-
          tional rights as Muslims. Emphatically not so — see below.
          9. Iran has frequently claimed BahS' s excluded from Constitution because
          political group, not religious. Rebut (along with other false charges).
          10. Briefly describe persecutions, noting discriminatory legislation on
          basis religion, fact that denial of faith will secure education/employ-
          ment, summary arrests, torture to force recantation, summary executions
          on false charges — all charges dropped/lives spared if recant, etc. etc.
          Also mention non-recognition ah ' marriage, confiscation properties etc.
          —1—
          .4
        
          
          OtYPLOE'E OF PROPOSED PAPER FOR SUBMISSION TO CERD page 2
          11. All this demonstrates aha'is not ega de a5 and that perse-
          cution springs from religious prejudice.
          12. Explain persecution inspired by religious fanaticism on part of cer-
          tain elements among fundamentalist Muslim clergy — some of them now
          in power and determined eradicate Baha' community/obliterate all
          traces Faith land its birth.
          13. underlying rationale is assertion IIat, since Muhammad is IIe last
          of the prophets, the Baha'( FaiII cannot be considered a religion
          and that, in claiming to be a religion, it is either concealing its
          trne nature or is attempting to set itself up in opposition to Islam.
          This is clearly ridiculous.
          14. point out that no Christian country persecutes its Muslim minority
          simply because majority of population doesn't believe in Muhammad.
          15. Baha' Faith is an independent world religion with own Founder,
          Scriptures, teachings. Bah 'Ls in Iran (all indigenous Iranians)
          constitute a distinct religious coimnunity. Simply wish to be recog-
          nized as such as accorded the right (to which entitled.under inter-
          national law) to have and to follow their own beliefs. .
          [ Appropriate documentation will, of course, accompany the report]
          Query ‘
          committee member Mrs. sadiq Ali of India said (in 1980) that “she knew
          that between 30,000 and 40,000 Sikhs were treated with tolerance in iran”.
          The Sikhs, of course, are not named in the Constitution as an officially—
          recognized religious minority. They are thus in exactly the same position
          as the Baha' s although (if Mrs. Sadiq Au is correct) they are not suffer-
          ing for it. Perhaps oIIer, even smaller, unrecognized religious minorities
          exist and are allowed to practise their religion in peace. .
          We appreciate that the Iranian government does not have the same religious
          reasons for persecuting the Sikhs (or others) as it does for persecuting
          the Baha' s, Nevertheless, if the question comes up in the Committee —
          and it may well do so, since Mrs. Sadiq Ali is still a member — it might
          tend to cloud the whole issue. The representative of Iran could, for
          instance, draw an analogy between the Sikhs and the Baha' s and use it to
          support the argument that all religious minorities are protected in Iran,
          whether or not they are specifically named in the Constitution, He could
          also argue from this that (as Iran has frequently claimed in the past) any
          punishment meted out to the Baha' Cs is because of their criminal misbehaviour
          and has nothing to do with their religious beliefs.
          We would be most grateful for any comments or guidance from IIe universal
          House of Justice on IIis point.
          25 january 1983
        
          
          Jean-Marie APIOU .
          S
          Eugenio Carlos Jos ARAi i3UBU
          Yuli BAB EV
          Pedro BP IN MARTINEZ
          Andr DEO2E7 J . S
          Silvo DEVET .PX
          Dinitrios J. EVRIG IS
          Oladapo Olusola F .AFOWORA
          .Abdel Mo ein GHONEOE!
          Jos D. INGLES
          George 0. LAMPTEY
          Erik TTEL
          Karl Josef P.ARTSCE
          Shanti S.ADIQ ALl
          Agha SEA I
          Michael E. SBEPIFIS-
          Gleb Borisovieb STARUSB 1X0
          Countiy of
          nationa1ity
          Upper Volta
          Argentina
          Bulgaria
          Panana
          Term expires
          on 19 January
          1986
          1981;
          1981;
          1981;
          1981;
          1981;
          ‘ 1986
          1986
          1986
          19814
          1986.
          1981;
          1986
          1981;
          1986
          1986
          19814
          ERSEIP OF TNE C0I• •iITTEE ON THE ELIflINATION
          OF RACIAL DISCBn• .al A ION
          1982—1983
          Name of ]neinber
          fir.
          Mr.
          Mr.
          Mr.
          Mr.
          Mr.
          Mr.
          Mr.
          Mr.
          Mr.
          ‘. Mr.
          ‘Mr.
          Mr.
          .,, !• .rs.
          Mr.
          Mr.
          Mr.
          France
          Yugoslavia
          Greece
          Nigeria
          E rpt
          Philip ines
          Ghana
          Austria
          Gerxaany, Federal. P(epublic ,
          md i a
          Pakistan
          Cyprus
          Union of Soviet Socialist
          Repiibli as
          - ‘
          4-
          Mr. Luis VALE [ ICIA RODRIGUEZ
          Ecuad .or
          1986